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1. Jennifer Thomas, mother of seven-year-old twins Abigail and Noah. Jennifer is a wheelchair user with cerebral palsy.

2. Carl H. Coleman, “Conceiving Harm: Disability Discrimination in Assisted Reproductive Technologies,” UCLA Law Review 50 (2002): 24.

3. Michael G. Silver, “Eugenics and Compulsory Sterilization Laws: Providing Redress for the Victims of a Shameful Era in United States History,” George Washington Law Review 72 (2004): 862, 864.

4. Paul A. Lombardo, “Medicine, Eugenics and the Supreme Court: From Coercive Sterilization to Reproductive Freedom,”Journal of Contemporary Health and Policy 13 (1996): 1, 3.

5. Paul A. Lombardo, Three Generations, No Imbeciles: Eugenics, the Supreme Court, and Buck v. Bell (Baltimore, MD: John Hopkins University Press, 2008).

6. Buck v. Bell, 274 U.S. 200 (1927).

7. Id. at 205.

8. Id.

9. Id. at 206.

10. Id. at 208.

11. Estate of C.W., 640 A.2d 427 (Pa. Super. Ct. 1994), cert. denied, 115 S. Ct. 1175 (1995).

12. Vaughn v. Ruoff, 253 F.3d 1124 (8th Cir. 2001).

13. Id. at 1129.

14. The following states retain dangerous and offensive statutory language that authorizes a court to order the involuntary sterilization of a person with a disability: Arkansas (Ark. Code Ann. §20-49-101); Colorado (Colo. Rev. Stat. §27-10.5-130); Delaware (16 Del.C. §5712); Georgia (Ga. Code. Ann. §31-20-3); Maine (34-B M.R.S.A. §7010); North Carolina (N.C.G.S.A. §35A-1245); Oregon (O.R.S. §436.205); Utah (U.C.A. 1953 §62A-6-102); Vermont (18 V.S.A. §8705 et seq.); Virginia (Va. Code Ann. §54.1-2975 et seq.); West Virginia (W.Va. Code, §27-16-1 et seq. (uses especially offensive language regarding the best interests of society).

15. Ed Pikington and Karen McVeigh, “‘Ashley Treatment’ on the Rise Amid Concerns from Disability Rights Groups,” The Guardian, March 15, 2012, http://www.guardian.co.uk/society/2012/mar/15/ashley-treatment-rise-amid-concerns/print.

16. Guardianship of Mary Moe, 960 N.E.2d 350 (Mass. App. Ct. 2012).

17. Craig Hemmens et al., “The Consequences of Official Labels: An Examination of the Rights Lost by the Mentally Ill and Mentally Incompetent Ten Years Later,” Community Mental Health Journal 38(2) (2002): 136.

18. Id.

19. Law Students for Reproductive Justice, “Women with Disabilities,” accessed November 15, 2011,http://lsrj.org/documents/11_Women with Disabilities.pdf.

20. Michael Ashley Stein, “Mommy Had a Blue Wheelchair: Recognizing the Parental Rights of Individuals with Disabilities,” Brooklyn Law Review 60 (1994): 1073.

21. Id. at 1074.

22. Id. at 1075.

23. Elizabeth Lightfoot, Katharine Hill, and Traci LaLiberte, “The Inclusion of Disability as a Condition for Termination of Parental Rights,” Child Abuse and Neglect 34 (2010): 928.

24. Corbett Joan O’Toole and Tanis Doe, “Sexuality and Disabled Parents with Disabled Children,” Sexuality and Disability20 (2002): 90.

25. Pseudonym used to protect confidentiality. E-mail, February 28, 2012.

26. Carrie Killoran, “Women with Disabilities Having Children: It’s Our Right Too,” Sexuality and Disability 12 (1994): 122.

27. O’Toole and Doe, Supra note 24, 90.

28. Pseudonym used to protect confidentiality. Telephone conversation, January 20, 2012.

29. Pseudonym used to protect confidentiality. Telephone conversation, October 12, 2011.

30. Kara Ayers, “Anything for Baby,” New Mobility, February 2011, accessed November 30, 2011,http://www.newmobility.com/articleView.cfm?id=11807.

31. Id.

32. Ora Prilletensky, “A Ramp to Motherhood: The Experiences of Mothers with Physical Disabilities,” Sexuality and Disability 21(1) (2003): 22–23.

33. Pseudonym used to protect confidentiality. Telephone conversation, September 27, 2012.

34. Megan Kirshbaum and Rhoda Olkin, “Parents with Physical, Systemic, or Visual Disabilities,” Sexuality and Disabilities20(1) (2002): 67.

35. Paul Preston, “Parents with Disabilities,” International Encyclopedia of Rehabilitation, edited by J.H. Stone and M. Blouin (2011), http://cirrie.buffalo.edu/encyclopedia/en/article/36/.

36. Id.

37. Id.

38. Corbett Joan O’Toole, “Sex, Disability and Motherhood: Access to Sexuality for Disabled Mothers,” Disability Studies Quarterly 22(4) (2002): 81–101, http://dsq-sds.org/article/view/374/495.

39. Preston, Supra note 35.

40. Stephen H. Kaye, Population Estimates and Demographics of Parents with Disabilities in the United States (Berkeley, CA: Through the Looking Glass, 2011).

41. Stephen H. Kaye, Unpublished Tabulations from the 2008 and 2009 American Community Survey.

42. Id.

43. Preston, Supra note 35.

44. Id.

45. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, “Prevalence of Autism Spectrum Disorders — Autism and Developmental Disabilities Monitoring Network, 14 Sites, United States, 2008, Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report, March 30, 2012,http://www.cdc.gov/mmwr/preview/mmwrhtml/ss6103a1.htm?s_cid=ss6103a1_w.

46. National Center for Veterans Analysis and Statistics, “Trends in Veterans with a Service-Connected Disability: FY 1985 to FY 2010,” January 2012, http://www.va.gov/vetdata/docs/QuickFacts/SCD_quickfacts_FY2010.pdf.

47. Meyer v. Nebraska, 262 U.S. 390, (1923).

48. Pierce v. Society of Sisters, 268 U.S. 510, (1925).

49. Id. at 535.

50. Stanley v. Illinois, 405 U.S. 645 (1972).

51. Id. at 651.

52. Smith v. OFFER, 431 U.S. at 816.

53. 321 U.S. 158 (1944).

54. Quilloin v. Walcott, 434 U.S. 246, 255 (1978) (quoting Prince v. Massachusetts, 321 U.S. 158, 166 (1944)).

55. See, e.g., M.L.B. v. S.L.J., 519 U.S. 102, (1996) (holding that parents have a right to access the trial record for the purpose of appealing a decision to terminate their rights regardless of their ability to pay for the record).

56. Id. at 116 (internal quotations and citation omitted).

57. Id. at 120.

58. Id.

59. Troxel v. Granville, 530 U.S. 57, (2000).

60. Catherine J. Ross, “The Tyranny of Time: Vulnerable Children, ‘Bad’ Mothers, and Statutory Deadlines in Parental Termination Proceedings,” Virginia Journal of Social Policy and Law 11 (2004): 182.

61. Troxel v. Granville, 530 U.S. 57, (2000).

62. Id.

63. Id.

64. City of Cleburne, 473 U.S. at 442.

65. Dave Shade, “Empowerment for the Pursuit of Happiness: Parents with Disabilities and the Americans with Disabilities Act,” Law and Inequality 16 (1998): 153–154.

66. Wisconsin v. Yoder et al., 406 U.S. 205 (1972).

67. Id. at 233–234.

68. Chris Watkins, “Beyond Status: The Americans with Disabilities Act and the Parental Rights of People Labeled Developmentally Disabled or Mentally Retarded,” California Law Review 83 (1995): 1431–1432.

69. Shade, Supra note 65, 156–157.

70. Watkins, Supra note 68, 1431 (citing Ex Parte Crouse, 4 Whart. 9, 11 (Pa. 1839).

71. Stanley v. Illinois, 405 U.S. 645 (1972).

72. Lassiter v. Department of Social Services of Durham County, N.C., 452 U.S. 18 (1981).

73. Id.

74. Id. at 31–32.

75. Santosky v. Kramer, 455 U.S. 745 (1982).

76. Id. at 760.

77. Id. at 769.

78. Id. at 753.

79. Child Abuse Prevention and Treatment Act of 1974 (P.L. 93-247), 42 U.S.C. § 5101; see also Cynthia Crosson-Tower,Understanding Child Abuse and Neglect, 4th Edition (Boston: Allyn & Bacon, 1999.).

80. Indian Child Welfare Act of 1978 (P.L. 95-608), codified at 25 U.S.C. § 1901 et seq.; see also Child Welfare Information Gateway, Major Federal Legislation Concerned with Child Protection, Child Welfare, and Adoption (April 2011), accessed November 21, 2011, http://www.childwelfare.gov/pubs/otherpubs/majorfedlegis.pdf.

81. Hearings before the Subcommittee on Indian Affairs of the Senate Committee on the Interior and Insular Affairs, 93d Cong. § 3, at 15 (1974) (stating that studies undertaken by the association on American Indian Affairs in 1969 and 1974, and presented in the Senate hearings, showed that 25 percent to 35 percent of all Indian children had been separated from their families and placed in adoptive families, foster care, or institutions).

82. P.L. 96-272 (enacted June 17, 1980) repealed the old foster care provisions of Title I.V-A of the Social Security Act, added a new Title IV-E (Foster Care and Adoption Assistance), and amended Title IV-B (Child Welfare Services) of the Social Security Act. 42 U.S.C. §§ 620 et seq. and 670 et seq.; see also Laureen D’Ambra, “Terminating the Parental Rights of the Mentally Disabled,” Rhode Island Bar Journal 49 (2001): 5.

83. Id.

84. Id.

85. Id.

86. Id.

87. Barriers to Adoption: Hearing on How Public Law 96-272, The Adoption Assistance and Child Welfare Act, Is a Barrier to Adoption, before the Subcommittee on Human Resources of the House Committee on Ways and Means, 104th Cong. (1996) (statement of David Liederman, executive director, Child Welfare League of America, Inc.).

88. Id.; See also D’Ambra Supra note 82, 5.

89. Improving the Well-Being of Abused and Neglected Children: Hearing Before the Senate Comm. on Labor and Human Resources, 104th Cong. 16 (1996) (statement of Sen. Mike DeWine).

90. Id.

91. P.L. 105-89; Title IV-E Foster Care Eligibility Reviews and Child and Family Services State Plan Reviews, 65 Fed. Reg. 4020–4088 (January 25, 2000) (amending 45 C.F.R. §§ 1355, 1356, and 1357); see also D’Ambra Supra note 82, 6.

92. Id.

93. Id.

94. 42 U.S.C. § 671(a)(15)(F); 45 C.F.R. § 1356.21(b)(4); 45 C.F.R. § 1356.21(i); 45 Fed. Reg. 4054 (Jan. 25, 2000) (describing concurrent planning as consistent with good practice).

95. Christine Breeden, Rhoda Olkin, and Daniel Taube, “Child Custody Evaluations When One Divorcing Parent has a Physical Disability,” Rehabilitation Psychology 53(4) (2008): 445.

96. Id.

97. Id.

98. Ella Callow, Kelly Buckland, and Shannon Jones, “Parents with Disabilities in the United States: Prevalence, Perspectives, and a Proposal for Legislative Change to Protect the Right to Family in the Disability Community,” Texas Journal of Civil Liberties and Civil Rights 17 (2011): 9–42.

99. Id.

100. Id.

101. Jehnna Irene Hanan, “The Best Interest of the Child: Eliminating Discrimination in the Screening of Adoptive Parents,”Golden Gate University Law Review 27 (1997): 167–168.

102. Id.

103. Brenda K. DeVries, “Health Should Not Be a Determinative Factor of Whether One Will Be a Suitable Adoptive Parent,” Indiana Health Law Review 6 (2009): 141–142.

104. Id. at 144–145.

105. Id.

106. Child Welfare Information Gateway, “Federal Laws Related to Adoption,” accessed February 14, 2012,http://www.childwelfare.gov/adoption/laws/federal/.

107. Hanan, Supra note 101, 174–175.

108. Sara C. Mills, “Perpetuating Ageism via Adoption Standards and Practices,” Wisconsin Journal of Law, Gender and Society 26.(2011): 73–74.

109. Child Welfare Information Gateway, “Adoption Options,” accessed February 15, 2012,http://www.childwelfare.gov/pubs/f_adoptoption.pdf.

110. Erika Lynn Kleiman, “Caring for Our Own: Why American Adoption Law and Policy Must Change,” Columbia Journal of Law and Social Problems, Inc. 30 (1997): 327.

111. Adoption.com, “Interstate Adoptions: ICPC and ICAMA,” accessed March 19, 2012.

112. Child Welfare Information Gateway, Supra note 109.

113. Id.

114. Id.

115. Child Welfare Information Gateway, “Intercountry Adoption from Hague Convention and Non-Hague Convention Countries,” accessed February 15, 2012, http://www.childwelfare.gov/pubs/factsheets/hague.cfm.

116. Id.

117. Id.

118. Hague Conference on Private International Law, “Status Table,” accessed March 20, 2012,http://www.hcch.net/index_en.php?act=conventions.status&cid=69.

119. See Child Welfare Information GatewaySupra note 115.

120. Americans with Disabilities Act, 42 U.S.C. § 12102 (1990), amended by the Americans with Disabilities Amendments Act, Pub. L. No. 110-325 (2008).

121. Id.; see also Bragdon v. Abbott, 524 U.S. 624 (1998) holding that the reproductive system is a major life activity.

122. 42 U.S.C. §12102

123. 28 C.R.F. § 35.130(g), § 36.205.

124. Rehabilitation Act, 29 U.S.C. § 701 (1973).

125. Id.

126. Id. at § 794 (emphasis added).

127. Id. § 794.

128. Id. § 791.

129. Id. § 793.

130. Id. § 794d.

131. Pub. L. No. 101-336, 104 Stat. 327 (1990).

132. 42 U.S.C. § 12101(a)(2).

133. 42 U.S.C. § 12101(a)(7).

134. Id. at § 12101(b)(1).

135. 2 Leg. Hist.1331; H.R. Rep. No. 485, Pt. 3 at 25; H.R. Rep. No. 485, Pt. 2, at 41; Theresa Glennon, “Lawyering for the Mentally Ill: Walking with Them: Advocating for Parents with Mental Illnesses in the Child Welfare System,” Temple Political and Civil Rights Law Review 12 (2003): 275.

136. Susan Stefan, “Accommodating Families: Using the Americans with Disabilities Act to Keep Families Together,” St. Louis University Journal of Health Law and Policy 2 (2008): 155.

137. 42 U.S.C. § 12111.

138. 42 U.S.C. § 12131.

139. 42 U.S.C. § 12141.

140. 42 U.S.C. § 12181.

141. 47 U.S.C. § 225.

142. 42 U.S.C. § 12201.

143. 42 U.S.C. § 12131 et seq.

144. Id. at § 12132.

145. Id. at § 12131 (1)(B).

146. 28 C.F.R. 42.503.

147. Tennessee v. Lane, 541 U.S. 509,531 (2004).

148. 28 C.F.R. § 35130(b).

149. 28 C.F.R.§ 35.130(b)(7).

150. 28 C.F.R § 35.130(d).

151. 28 C.F.R. § 35.130(b)(8).

152. 28 C.F.R. § 35.160(a)(1),(b)(1), 28 C.F.R. § 35.164.

153. 28 C.F.R. § 35.130(c).

154. 28 C.F.R. § 35.130(f).

155. 28 C.F.R. § 35.149.

156. “Title II Highlights,” U.S. Department of Justice, Civil Rights Division, Disability Rights Section, last modified August 29, 2002, http://www.ada.gov/t2hlt95.htm.

157. The Department of Justice published revised regulations for Titles II and III ADA in the Federal Register on September 15, 2010. These regulations adopted revised, enforceable accessibility standards called the 2010 ADA Standards for Accessible Design (2010 Standards or Standards). The 2010 Standards set minimum requirements – both scoping and technical -- for newly designed and constructed or altered state and local government facilities, public accommodations, and commercial facilities to be readily accessible to and usable by people with disabilities. See Revised ADA Requirements: http://www.ada.gov/revised_effective_dates-2010.htm. (February 16, 2011).

158. 28 C.F.R. § 35.150(b)(2)(i).

159. 28 C.F.R. § 35.150(b)(1).

160. 28 C.F.R. § 35.150(a).

161. 28 C.F.R. § 35.150(a)(3).

162. 28 C.F.R. § 35.150(a)(3).

163. 28 C.F.R. § 35.130(h).

164. 28 C.F.R. § 35.130(h).

165. 28 C.F.R. § 35.139.

166. 28 C.F.R. § 35.139.

167. 42 U.S.C. § 12181.

168. 28 C.F.R. § 36.104.

169. 28 C.F.R. §36.303(a).

170. 28 C.F.R. § 36.302(a).

171. 28 C.F.R. § 36.303(a).

172. 28 C.F.R. § 36.401 et seq.

173. 28 C.F.R. § 36.304.

174. 28 C.F.R. § 36.208.

175. Id.

176. 28 C.F.R. § 36.301(b).

177. Id.

178. Through the Looking Glass, “Visible, Diverse, and United: A Report of the Bay Area Parents with Disabilities and Deaf Parents Task Force,” October 30, 2006, http://www.lookingglass.org/announcements/67-news/100-report-task-force-on-bay-area-parents-with-disabilities-and-deaf-parents.

179. Id.

180. Id.

181. Pseudonym used to protect confidentiality. Telephone conversation, October 5, 2011.

182. Pseudonym used to protect confidentiality. Telephone conversation, October 12, 2011.

183. Pseudonym used to protect confidentiality. Telephone conversation, September 27, 2011.

184. Pseudonym used to protect confidentiality. Telephone conversation, January 20, 2012.

185. Linda Toms Barker and Vida Maralami, Challenges and Strategies of Disabled Parents: Findings from a National Survey of Parents with Disabilities (Berkeley, CA: Through the Looking Glass, 1997), 4–2.

186. Id.

187. Pseudonym used to protect confidentiality. Telephone conversation, October 11, 2011.

188. Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities, GA Res 61/106, UN Doc A/RES/61/106 (Dec. 13, 2006), preambular para (x).

189. Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities.

190. White House Office of the Press Secretary, Remarks by the President on Signing of U.N. Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities Proclamation (June 22, 2010).

191. Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities, art. 1.

192. For an overview of the CRPD and its reflection of the social model of disability, see Rosemary Kayess and Phillip French, “Out of Darkness into Light? Introducing the Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities,” Human Rights law Review 8 (2008): 1–27.

193. Gerard Quinn, “Closing: Next Steps—Towards a United Nations Treaty on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities,” in Peter Blanck (Ed.), Disability Rights: International Library of Essays on Rights (pp. 519, 541) (Aldershot, England: Ashgate Pub., 2005).

194. Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities, Supra note 188 at preambular para. (e).

195. Id. at art. 2.

196. Id. at art. 3.

197. Id. at art. 23.

198. Id. (emphasis added).

199. Callow, Buckland, and Jones, Supra note 98.

200. Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities, Supra note 188 at art. 23 (emphasis added).

201. Id. at art. 25.

202. Id. at art. 5.

203. Id. at art. 8.

204. Id.

205. Id.

206. Id. at art. 13.

207. Id. at art. 28.

208. See Jay Matthews, A Mother’s Touch: The Tiffany Callo Story (New York: Henry Holt and Co., 1992).

209. Child Welfare Information Gateway, “How the Child Welfare System Works” (May 2011), accessed February 9, 2012,http://www.childwelfare.gov/pubs/factsheets/cpswork.cfm.

210. Jan McCarthy et al., A Family’s Guide to the Child Welfare System (Washington, DC: National Technical Assistance Partnership for Child and Family Mental Health at Georgetown University Center for Child and Human Development, 2003), accessed February 9, 2012, http://www.cwla.org/childwelfare/familyguide.htm.

211. Child Welfare Information Gateway, Supra note 209.

212. Id.

213. McCarthy et al., Supra note 210.

214. U.S. Government Accountability Office, Foster Care: Recent Legislation Helps States Focus on Finding Permanent Homes for Children, But Long-Standing Barriers Remain, GAO-02-585, (Washington, DC, 2002),http://www.gao.gov/new.items/d02585.pdf.

215. Id.

216. Id.

217. Id.

218. U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, “Children’s Bureau Fact Sheet,” accessed March 15, 2012.

219. McCarthy et al., Supra note 210.

220. Id.

221. Id.

222. Id.

223. Child Welfare Information Gateway, Supra note 209.

224. Id.

225. Id.

226. Id.

227. Id.

228. Id.

229. Rachel L. Lawless, “When Love is Not Enough: Termination of Parental Rights When the Parents Have a Mental Disability,” Capital University Law Review 37 (2008): 495.

230. Stephanie N. Gwillim, “The Death Penalty of Civil Cases: The Need for Individualized Assessment and Judicial Education When Terminating Parental Rights of Mentally Ill Individuals,” St. Louis University Public Law Review 29 (2009): 344.

231. 2 Leg. Hist.1331.

232. H.R. Rep. No. 485, Pt. 3 at 25.

233. H.R. Rep. No. 485, Pt. 2, at 41.

234. Glennon, Supra note 135, 275.

235. 42 U.S.C. § 12131 et seq.

236. Id. at § 12132.

237. 28 C.F.R. § 35130(b).

238. 28 C.F.R.§ 35.130(b)(7).

239. 28 C.F.R § 35.130(d).

240. 28 C.F.R. § 35.130(b)(8).

241. 28 C.F.R. § 35.160(a)(1),(b)(1), 28 C.F.R. § 35.164.

242. 28 C.F.R. § 35.130(c).

243. 28 C.F.R. § 35.130(f).

244. 28 C.F.R. § 35.149.

245. “Title II Highlights,” U.S. Department of Justice, Civil Rights Division, Disability Rights Section, last modified August 29, 2002, http://www.ada.gov/t2hlt95.htm.

246. ADA Technical Assistance Manual, II-3.9000, http://www.ada.gov/taman2.html.

247. Dale Margolin, “No Chance to Prove Themselves: The Rights of Mentally Disabled Parents Under the Americans with Disabilities Act and State Law,” Virginia Journal of Social Policy and the Law 15 (2007): 117 (citing Yeskey v. Pennsylvania, 524 U.S. 206 (1998)).

248. Margolin, Supra note 247, 123–124.

249. Loran B. Kundra and Leslie B. Alexander, “Termination of Parental Rights Proceedings: Legal Considerations and Practical Strategies for Parents with Psychiatric Disabilities and the Practitioners Who Serve Them,” Psychiatric Rehabilitation Journal 33(2) (2009): 144–145.

250. Margolin, Supra note 247, 117-118 (citing Thompson v. Davis, 295 F.3d 890 (9th Cir. 2002)).

251. Id. (citing Henrietta v. Bloomberg, 331 F.3d 261 (2d Cir. 2003)).

252. Susan Kerr, “The Application of the Americans with Disabilities Act to the Termination of the Parental Rights of Individuals with Mental Disabilities,” Journal of Contemporary Health Law and Policy 16 (2000): 402.

253. Currently, the NCANDS Caregiver Risk Factors cannot be linked to perpetrator characteristics. While the term “caretaker” does not necessarily correlate to parent within the parameters of this dataset, American children reside with parents 95.9 percent of the time; grandparents are the caretaker in 54.9 percent of the remaining instances (DHHS-ChildStats, 2011). This can be resolved if future reporting efforts identify whether each perpetrator was a caregiver of the victim and then ask about caregiver characteristics for each caregiver on the report.

254. Data Source: Through the Looking Glass; Gemmill, Alison, Summary of the 2008 National Child Abuse and Neglect Data System (NCANDS) Child File: Victims of Maltreatment and their Caregivers’ Disabilities (Berkeley, CA: Though the Looking Glass, 2011).

255. Consistent with the NCANDS federal project’s 2008 efforts to improve data quality, our analysis applied the same threshold used in the caregiver risk factor of domestic violence. States were excluded from our analysis if fewer than 10 percent of all records contained a reported caregiver disability. This resulted in analysis of data for 19 states.

256. S. Singh, et al., “Parental Disability and Termination of Parental Rights in Child Welfare, Minn-LInK Brief No. 12,” (Center for Advance Studies in Child Welfare, 2012), accessed March 8, 2012,http://www.cehd.umn.edu/ssw/cascw/research/minnlink/minnlinkpublications.asp.

257. Lightfoot, Hill, and LaLiberte, Supra note 23, 928.

258. Kundra and Alexander, Supra note 249, 143.

259. Lightfoot, Hill, and LaLiberte, Supra note 23, 928; Maurice Feldman, “Parents with Intellectual Disabilities: Implications and Interventions,” in J. Lutzker (Ed.), Handbook on Child Abuse Research and Treatment (pp. 401–420) (New York, Plenum Press: 1998).

260. Id. at 129.

261. Alexis C. Collentine, “Respecting Intellectually Disabled Parents: A Call for Change in State Termination of Parental Rights Statutes,” Hofstra Law Review 34 (2005): 542–543.

262. Lightfoot, Hill, and LaLiberte, Supra note 23, 928.

263. National Council on Disability, Meeting the Unique Needs of Minorities with Disabilities, (Washington, DC: 1993),http://www.ncd.gov/NCD/publications/1993/April261993.

264. Children’s Rights, “Facts about Disparities in Foster Care,” accessed February 29, 2012,http://www.childrensrights.org/issues-resources/foster-care/facts-about-disparities-in-foster-care.

265. Kundra and Alexander, Supra note 249, 144.

266. Diane T. Marsh, “Parental Mental Illness: Issues in Custody Determination,” American Journal of Family Law 23(1) (2009): 29.

267. Kundra and Alexander, Supra note 249, 143.

268. Chris Watkins, Supra note 68, 1417.

269. Paul Preston, Supra note 35.

270. Watkins, Supra note 68, 1435–1436.

271. Id.

272. Id.

273. Joshua B. Kay, “Representing Parents with Disabilities in Child Protection Proceedings,” Michigan Child Welfare Law Journal (2009): 28.

274. Id.

275. Washington State Racial Disproportionality Advisory Committee, Racial Disproportionality in Washington State: Literature Review, accessed February 10, 2012, http://dshs.wa.gov/pdf/ca/dispro_LitReview.pdf.

276. Id.

277. Ella Callow, e-mail message to author, March 7, 2012.

278. Id.

279. Id.

280. Lightfoot, Hill, and LaLiberte, Supra note 23, 928 (citing Phillip Swain and Nadine Cameron, “‘Good Enough Parenting:’ Parental Disability and Child Protection,” Disability and Society 18(2) (2003): 165–177).

281. Id.

282. Id.

283. Id.

284. Pseudonym used to protect confidentiality. Telephone conversation, October 5, 2011.

285. Pseudonym used to protect confidentiality. Telephone conversation, October 12, 2011.

286. Robert L. Hayman, Jr., “Presumptions of Justice: Law, Politics, and the Mentally Retarded Parent,” Harvard Law Review 103 (1990): 1228.

287. Watkins, Supra note 68, 1435.

288. David McConnell and Gwynnyth Llewellyn, “Disability and Discrimination in Statutory Child Protection Proceedings,”Disability and Society 15(6) (2000): 885.

289. Id. (citing In re G.C.P., 680 S.W.2d 429 (Mo. App. 1984)).

290. Connie Conley-Jung and Rhoda Olkin, “Mothers with Visual Impairments Who Are Raising Young Children,” Journal of Visual Impairment and Blindness 91(1) (2001): 15.

291. Pseudonym used to protect confidentiality. Telephone conversation, September 27, 2011.

292. Pseudonym used to protect confidentiality. Telephone conversation, January 20, 2012.

293. Pseudonym used to protect confidentiality. Telephone conversation, October 12, 2011.

294. Pseudonym used to protect confidentiality. Telephone conversation, November 1, 2011.

295. Pseudonym used to protect confidentiality. E-mail message to author, February 28, 2012.

296. Pseudonym used to protect confidentiality. Telephone conversation, October 7, 2011.

297. Michael Ashley Stein, Supra note, 20, 1095-1096.

298. Ella Callow, “Maintaining Families When Parents have Disabilities,” ABA Child Law Practice 28(9) (2009): 134.

299. 42 U.S.C. at § 12132.

300. Lightfoot, Hill, and LaLiberte, Supra note 23, 930.

301. Id.

302. Id. at 928.

303. Id.

304. Id.

305. Id.

306. Id.

307. Hayman, Jr., Supra note 286, 1269.

308. Elizabeth Lightfoot and Traci LaLiberte “Parental Supports for Parents with Intellectual and Developmental Disabilities,” Intellectual and Developmental Disabilities 49 (2011): 389.

309. Id.

310. Id.

311. Watkins, Supra note 68, 1438.

312. Hayman, Jr., Supra note 286, 1268–1269.

313. Lightfoot and LaLiberte, Supra note 308, 389.

314. Margolin, Supra note 247, 153.

315. P.L. 105-89; Title IV-E Foster Care Eligibility Reviews and Child and Family Services State Plan Reviews, 65 Fed. Reg. 4020–4088 (January 25, 2000) (amending 45 C.F.R. §§ 1355, 1356, and 1357); see also Marcia Robinson Lowry, “Putting Teeth into ASFA: The Need for Statutory Minimum Standards,” Children and Youth Services Review 26 (2004): 1021–1022.

316. Id.

317. 42 U.S.C. § 675(5)(E); see also Olivia Golden and Jennifer Macomber, “Framework Paper,” in O. Golden and J.E. Macomber (Eds.), Intentions and Results: A Look Back at the Adoption and Safe Families Act (p. 11) (Washington, DC: Center for the Study of Social Policy and the Urban Institute, 2009).

318. 42 U.S.C. § 671(a)(15)(B).

319. 42 U.S.C. § 675(5)(E); 42 U.S.C. § 671(a)(15)(D)(i); 42 U.S.C. § 671(a)(15)(D)(ii) 42 U.S.C. § 671(15)(D)(ii); 42 U.S.C. § 671(a)(15)(D)(iii); 42 U.S.C. § 671(a)(15)(A), 42 U.S.C. § 671(a)(15)(D)(i), 65 Fed. Reg. 4060 (Jan. 25, 2000); see also U.S. Government Accountability Office, Foster Care: States’ Early Experiences Implementing the Adoption and Safe Families Act, GAO/HEHS-00-1, (Washington, DC, 1999), http://www.gao.gov/new.items/he00001.pdf.

320. 42 U.S.C. § 671(a)(15)(A), 42 U.S.C. § 671(a)(15)(D)(i), 65 Fed. Reg. 4060 (Jan. 25, 2000).

321. 42 U.S.C. § 671(a)(15)(F); 45 C.F.R. § 1356.21(b)(4); 45 C.F.R. § 1356.21(i); 45 Fed. Reg. 4054 (Jan. 25, 2000); see alsoGlennon, Supra note 135, 279.

322. 42 U.S.C. § 671(a)(15)(F); 45 C.F.R. § 1356.21(b)(4); 45 C.F.R. § 1356.21(i); 45 Fed. Reg. 4054 (Jan. 25, 2000) (describing concurrent planning as consistent with good practice.).

323. Glennon, Supra note 135, 279.

324. Id.

325. Id.

326. Id. at 280.

327. 42 U.S.C. § 675.

328. 45 C.F.R. § 1356.21(i)(2).

329. Child Welfare Information Gateway, Grounds for Involuntary Termination of Parental Rights (February 2010),http://www.childwelfare.gov/systemwide/laws_policies/statutes/groundtermin.cfm.

330. Id.

331. Callow, Buckland, and Jones, Supra note 98.

332. Kundra and Alexander, Supra note 249, 144.

333. Sherrie Hansen, Annual Program Evaluation Reports to the Regional Center of the East Bay, 1990–2010.

334. Barbara J. Friesen et al., “Parents with a Mental Illness and Implementation of the Adoption and Safe Families Act,” In O. Golden and J. Macomber (Eds.), Intentions and Results: A Look Back at the Adoption and Safe Families Act (pp. 109–110). (Washington, DC: Urban Institute, Center for the Study of Social Policy, 2009).

335. Id.

336. Lenore M. McWey, Tammy L. Henderson, and Susan N. Tice, “Mental Health Issues and the Foster Care System: An Examination of the Impact of the Adoption and Safe Families Act,” Journal of Marital and Family Therapy 32 (2) (2006): 195.

337. Id. at 202.

338. Id.

339. Id. at 203.

340. U.S. Government Accountability Office, Supra note 214.

341. Kay, Supra note 273, 29.

342. 42 U.S.C. § 671(a)(15)(B).

343. 42 U.S.C. § 675.

344. U.S. Government Accountability Office, Supra note 319.

345. Child Welfare Information Gateway, Reasonable Efforts to Preserve or Reunify Families and Achieve Permanency for Children: Summary of State Laws (July 2009), accessed December 1, 2011.http://www.childwelfare.gov/systemwide/laws_policies/statutes/reunifyall.pdf.

346. Id.

347. Esme Noelle DeVault, “Reasonable Efforts Not So Reasonable: The Termination of the Parental Rights of a Developmentally Disabled Mother,” Roger Williams University Law Review 10 (2005): 764.

348. U.S. Government Accountability Office, Supra note 319.

349. DeVault, Supra note 347, 764.

350. Id. at 787.

351. UPenn Collaborative on Community Inclusion, “Supporting Parents with Psychiatric Disabilities: A Model Reunification Statute, accessed March 1, 2012,http://tucollaborative.org/pdfs/Toolkits_Monographs_Guidebooks/parenting/A_Model_Reunification_Statute.pdf.

352. Id.

353. Bazelon Center for Mental Health Law, Termination of Parental Rights of Parents with Mental Disabilities, accessed December 2, 2011,http://www.napas.org/images/Documents/Issues/Community_integration/NDRN_TPR_paper_2008.pdf.

354. Id.

355. Id.

356. 865 So. 2d 1188 (Ala. Civ. App. 2003.

357. Margolin, Supra note 247, 152–153.

358. Id.

359. 42 U.S.C. § 671.

360. Id.

361. Id. (emphasis added).

362. 42 U.S.C. § 671(a)(15)(E).

363. Kathleen S. Bean, “Aggravated Circumstances, Reasonable Efforts, and ASFA,” Boston College Third World Law Journal 29 (2009): 226 (internal citations omitted).

364. 42 U.S.C. § 671.

365. Bean, Supra note 363, 226–227.

366. See, e.g., Cal. Welf. & Inst. Code 361.5(b) (directing that “reunification services need not be provided to a parent or guardian ... when ... the parent or guardian is suffering from a mental disability ... that renders him or her incapable of utilizing those services”).

367. Child Welfare Information Gateway, Supra note 329.

368. Stefan, Supra note 136, 168.

369. Watkins, Supra note 68, 1444.

370. Vignette provided by Through the Looking Glass.

371. 42 U.S.C. § 12132.

372. 42 U.S.C. § 671(a)(15)(F); 45 C.F.R. § 1356.21(b)(4); 45 C.F.R. § 1356.21(i); 45 Fed. Reg. 4054 (Jan. 25, 2000).

373. Child Welfare Information Gateway, Concurrent Planning: What the Evidence Shows, (April 2005),http://www.childwelfare.gov/pubs/issue_briefs/concurrent_evidence/index.cfm.

374. Id.

375. Fred Wulczyn, “Family Reunification,” The Future of Children 14(1) (2004): 98.

376. Id.

377. Id.

378. Child Welfare Information Gateway, Supra note 345.

379. Id.

380. Id.

381. Jude T. Pannell, “Unaccommodated: Parents with Mental Disabilities in Iowa’s Child Welfare System and the Americans with Disabilities Act,” Drake Law Review 59 (2011): 1183.

382. Id. at 1184.

383. Glennon, Supra note 135, 280–281.

384. U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Administration for Children and Families, Administration on Children, Youth and Families Children’s Bureau, Child Welfare Outcomes: 2006–2009,http://www.acf.hhs.gov/programs/cb/pubs/cwo06-09/cwo06-09.pdf.

385. Bazelon Center for Mental Health Law, Supra note 353.

386. Bazelon Center for Mental Health Law, Supra note 353 (citing In re Adoption of Gregory, 747 N.E.2d 120, 125 (Mass. 2001); In the Matter of Terry, No. 214617, 2000 WL 244425, *5 (Mich. Ct. App. Feb. 29, 2000); In re Antony B., 54 A.2d 893, 899 (Conn. App. Ct. 1999); In the Interest of B.K.F., 704 So.2d 314, 317 (La. Ct. App. 1997); In re B.S., 693 A.2d 716, 720 (Vt. 1997)).

387. Bazelon Center for Mental Health Law, Supra note 353 (citing In re B.S., 693 A.2d at 721; see also In the Interest of Torrance P., 522 N.W.2d 243, 244–45 (Wis. Ct. App. 1994) (duty to make diligent effort to provide court-ordered services is defined by the TPR statute and not the ADA; ADA does not increase those responsibilities or dictate how they must be discharged)).

388. Bazelon Center for Mental Health Law, Supra note 353 (citing In re Doe, 60 P.3d 285, 293 (Haw. 2002)).

389. Bazelon Center for Mental Health Law, Supra note 353 (citing In the Matter of John D., 934 P.2d 308, 313-14 (N.M. Ct. App. 1997) (ADA provides a defense to evidence of presumptive abandonment when parent can show that she or he lacked responsibility for the destruction of the parent-child relationship owing to the state’s violation of the ADA)).

390. Bazelon Center for Mental Health Law, Supra note 353 (citing In the Matter of J.B., No. 95CA1698, 1996 WL 309979, *3 (Ohio Ct. App. 1996) (assuming without deciding that ADA applies to TPR proceedings); In re Caresse B., 1997 WL 133402, *5 (applying ADA); In the Interest of C.C., No. 95–1022, 1995 WL 810019, *5-7 (Iowa Ct. App. Dec. 22, 1995) (applying ADA); In re Dependency of C.C., No. 40888-7-I, 1999 WL 106824, *5-6 (Wash. Ct. App. Mar. 1, 1999) (applying ADA); J.T. v. Arkansas Dep’t of Hum. Servs., 947 S.W.2d 761, 766–68 (Ark. 1997) (applying ADA); In re Karrlo K., 669 A.2d 1249, 1259 (Conn. Super. Ct. 1994) (applying ADA); In the Matter of K.D.W., No. C5-93-2262, 1994 WL 149450 (Minn. Ct. App. 1994) (applying ADA)).

391. Bazelon Center for Mental Health Law, Supra note 353 (citing In the Interest of K.K.W., No. CCL-86-2039, 7 NDLR ¶ 111 (Tex. County Ct., Anderson County July 11, 1995) (state violated ADA by failing to modify its reunification services to ensure equally effective services to parent with schizophrenia; state provided only the homemaker services and six-week parenting class offered to parents without disabilities)).

392. Kundra and Alexander, Supra note 249, 145.

393. In re Kayla N., 900 A.2d 1202, 1208 (R.I. 2006).

394. Irving N. v. Rhode Island Dep’t of Children, Youth and Families, No. 06-603 (cert. petition filed Oct. 30, 2006), cert. denied, 127 S.Ct. 1372 (2007).

395. 524 U.S. 206 (1998).

396. Bazelon Center for Mental Health Law, Supra note 353.

397. Watkins, Supra note 68, 1434.

398. Id.

399. Id.

400. Id.

401. Id. at 1435.

402. Id.

403. DeVault, Supra note 347, 786.

404. Id. (citing Watkins, Supra note 68, 1448).

405. Watkins, Supra note 68, 1438.

406. Id.

407. NBC Action News, “Blind Independence Couple Gets Newborn Back after 57 Days,” July 21, 2010, accessed November 28, 2011, http://www.nbcactionnews.com/dpp/news/local_news/blind-kansas-city-couple-gets-newborn-back-after-57-days.

408. Id.

409. Id.

410. Id.

411. Id.

412. Id.

413. Id.

414. Id.

415. Vignette provided by Through the Looking Glass.

416. Vignette provided by Through the Looking Glass.

417. Stefan, Supra note 136, 172–173.

418. Gwillim, Supra note 230, 343.

419. Lightfoot, Hill, and LaLiberte, Supra note 23, 928.

420. Id.

421. Watkins, Supra note 68, 1444.

422. Callow, Buckland, and Jones, Supra note 98.

423. Id. at 8.

424. Callow, Supra note 298, 135.

425. 452 U.S. 18 (1981).

426. “A National Survey on a Parent’s Right to Counsel in Termination of Parental Rights and Dependency Cases,” accessed December 13, 2011, http://www.jrplaw.org/Documents/SurveyParentRighttoCounsel.pdf.

427. Id.

428. Id.

429. Id.

430. ABA Resolution 112A (Aug. 7, 2006).

431. Id.

432. Id.

433. American Bar Association, “Indigent Parents Should Have Right to Counsel in Abuse and Neglect Cases, ABA Urges N.H. High Court,” December 13, 2011, http://www.abanow.org/2011/12/indigent-parents-should-have-right-to-counsel-in-abuse-and-neglect-cases-aba-urges-n-h-high-court/.

434. Brief for the American Bar Association Amicus Curiae Supporting Petitioners, In re Christian M. and Alexander M., Case No. 2011-0647 (N.H. 2011), http://www.abanow.org/wordpress/wp-content/files_flutter/1323793110In-re-Christian-M-amicus-brief.pdf.

435. Id.

436. McConnell and Llewellyn, Supra note 288, 891.

437. David McConnell and Gwynnyth Llewellyn, “Stereotypes, Parents with Intellectual Disability and Child Protection,”Journal of Social Welfare and Family Law 24(3) (2002): 309.

438. Id.

439. Callow, Buckland, and Jones, Supra note 98, 8.

440. Hayman, Jr., Supra note 286, 1243.

441. Teri L. Mosier, “‘Trying to Cure the Seven-Year Itch’: The ADA Defense in Termination of Parental Rights Actions,”Brandeis Law Journal 37 (1998): 785.

442. See Catherine R. Lawrence, Elizabeth A. Carlson, and Byron Egeland, “The Impact of Foster Care on Development,”Development and Psychopathology 18 (2006) 57.

443. Joseph Goldstein et al., Beyond the Best Interests of the Child (New York: Free Press, 1973).

444. Id.

445. Callow, Buckland, and Jones, Supra note 98, 8.

446. Id.

447. Id.

448. Id.

449. Stefan, Supra note 136, 172.

450. Nina Warsow, “Planned Failure: California’s Denial of Reunification Services to Parents with Mental Disabilities,” New York University Review of Law and Social Change 31 (2006): 218–219.

451. Id. at 219.

452. Callow, Buckland, and Jones, Supra note 98, 10–11.

453. Id.

454. Deborah Paruch, “The Orphaning of Underprivileged Children: America’s Failed Child Welfare Law and Policy,”Journal of Law and Family Studies 8 (2006): 144.

455. Congressional Coalition on Adoption Institute, “Facts and Statistics,” accessed March 1, 2012,http://www.ccainstitute.org/why-we-do-it-/facts-and-statistics.html.

456. Paruch, Supra note 454, 144.

457. Id. at 146.

459. Paruch, Supra note 454, 146.

460. Theo Liebmann, “What’s Missing from Foster Care Reform? The Need for Comprehensive, Realistic, and Compassionate Removal Standards,” Hamline Journal of Public Law and Policy 28 (2006): 143.

461. Collentine, Supra note 261, 560–561.

462. Callow, Buckland, and Jones, Supra note 98, 11.

463. MIT News, “Kids Gain More from Family Than Foster Care.” July 3, 2007. http://web.mit.edu/newsoffice/2007/sloan-fostercare-study-0703.html.

464. Koch, Wendy, “Study: Troubled Homes Better Than Foster Care.” USA Today, July 3, 2007.http://www.usatoday.com/news/nation/2007-07-02-foster-study_N.htm.

465. Golden and Macomber, Supra note 317, 28.

466. Id.

467. Vignette provided by Through the Looking Glass.

468. Watkins, Supra note 68, 1458.

469. Collentine, Supra note 261, 558–560.

470. Id.

471. Id.

472. Watkins, Supra note 68, 1458.

473. Stefan, Supra note 136, 142.

474. Watkins, Supra note 68, 1475.

475 “Department of the Interior, Bureau of Indian Affairs, FAQs,” accessed February 12, 2012,http://www.bia.gov/FAQs/index.htm.

476 B.J. Jones, chief judge, Sisseton-Wahpeton Sioux Tribal Court, “Role of Indian Tribal Courts in the Justice System,” a report to the Indian Country Child Trauma Center (2000): 1, accessed March 5, 2012.http://www.icctc.org/Tribal%20courts-final.pdf

477 National Urban Indian Family Coalition, “Urban Indian America: The Status of American Indian and Alaskan Native Children and Families Today,” a report to the Annie E. Casey Foundation (2008): 8, accessed March 5, 2012.

478 Eddie Brown et al., “The Indian Child Welfare Act: An Examination of State Compliance in Arizona,” Portland, Oregon National Indian Child Welfare Association/Casey Family Programs (2002).

479 Indian Child Welfare Act, 25 U.S.C. §1901(3)(4).

480 American Indian Disability Technical Assistance Center, “American Indians and Disability: Montana’s AIDTAC Program,” accessed March 5, 2012.

481 Robert Hill, “An Analysis of Racial/Ethnic Disproportionality and Disparity at the National, State and Local Levels,” a report to the Casey Family Foundation (2007), accessed March 5, 2012.http://www.f2f.ca.gov/res/pdf/AnalysisRacialEthnic.pdf.

482 U.S. Census Bureau, “American FactFinder Fact Sheet: United States. 2005–2009 American Community Survey 5-Year Estimate,” accessed March 5, 2012.

483 Hill, Supra note 481.

484 Id.

485 California Indian Legal Services, “California Judges Bench Guide—The Indian Child Welfare Act,” accessed March 5, 2012.

486 National Indian Child Welfare Association, “ICWA FAQs,” accessed March 5, 2012.http://www.nicwa.org/Indian_Child_Welfare_Act/faq/.

487 Ella Callow and Jean Jacob, The Perspectives and Demographics of Parents Contacting Through the Looking Glass’ Legal Program Regarding Custody Issues (unpublished tabulations from the 2008–2011 study) (data on file with Through the Looking Glass).

488 U.S. Census, Supra note 482.

489 “Do Federal and State Employment Laws Apply to Tribes?” American Bar Association Web site, accessed March 5, 2012, http://www.abar.org/tips/wami/galuda.pdf; California Indian Legal Services, Supra note 485.

490 Diane DePanfilis and Howard Girvin, “Investigating Child Maltreatment in Out-of-Home Care: Barriers to Good Decision-Making,” Children and Youth Services Review 27 (2005): 353–374; Diane J. English et al., “Causes and Consequences of the Substantiation Decision in Washington State Child Protective System,” Child and Youth Services Review 24 (2002): 817–851.

491 Traci LaLiberte and Elizabeth Lightfoot, “The Child Welfare System; Children and Families with Disabilities Navigating the System” IMPACT (2006), accessed March 5, 2012. http://ici.umn.edu/products/impact/191/default.html.

492 Gwynnyth Llewellyn et al., “Support and Service Needs of Parents with Intellectual Disability,” The British Journal of Developmental Disabilities XLII (1996): 45; Robyn Mildon, “Understanding and Supporting Parents with Learning Difficulties,” Victorian Parenting Centre (2003).

493 Marian Harris and Wanda Hackett, “Decision Points in Child Welfare: An Action Research Model to Address Disproportionality,” Children and Youth Services Review 30 (2008): 199–215.

494 Julie Clay and Alan Fugleberg, “The Concept of Disability, Health Issues, and Disability Rates in Native American Communities: Important Considerations for BPAO Benefits Specialists.” Issues Brief 3, for the TANAC Project (2006).

495 National Indian Child Welfare Association, “The Status of Child Abuse and Neglect Prevention in American Indian Communities,” accessed March 5, 2012, http://www.nicwa.org/resources/library/abuse/statusofchildabuse.pdf.

496 Sara Olkon, “Disabled Mom Fighting to Keep Her Son,” Chicago Tribune, December 20, 2009,http://articles.chicagotribune.com/2009-12-20/news/0912190290_1_disabled-parents-custody-mom.

497 Through the Looking Glass, Legal Program, “Battle for the Rattle: A Soldier Mom Story of Custody Court, Disability, and Mothering,” accessed December 2, 2011, http://pwd-legalprogram.org/Battle-for-the-Rattle.html.

498 Olkon, Supra note 496.

499 Id.

500 Id.

501 Sarah Schulte, “Disabled Single Mom Talks about Challenges of Raising Son,” ABC 7 Chicago May 4, 2011, http://abclocal.go.com/wls/story?section=news/ local&id=8112269.

502 Id.

503 28 C.F.R. 42.503.

504 Tennessee v. Lane, 541 U.S. 509,531 (2004).

505 28 C.F.R. § 35130(b).

506 28 C.F.R.§ 35.130(b)(7).

507 28 C.F.R § 35.130(d).

508 28 C.F.R. § 35.130(b)(8).

509 28 C.F.R. § 35.160(a)(1),(b)(1), 28 C.F.R. § 35.164.

510 28 C.F.R. § 35.130(c).

511 28 C.F.R. § 35.130(f).

512 28 C.F.R. § 35.149.

513 “Title II Highlights,” U.S. Department of Justice, Civil Rights Division, Disability Rights Section, last modified August 29, 2002, http://www.ada.gov/t2hlt95.htm.

514 28 C.F.R. §36.303(a).

515 28 C.F.R. § 36.302(a).

516 28 C.F.R. § 36.303(a).

517 University of Washington Daily, “More to Marriage than It Seems,” accessed March 2, 2012.

518 In re Carney, 598 P.2d 36 (Cal. 1979).

519 Carney at 44.

520 Shade, Supra note 65, 159.

521 Ella Callow, Demographic and Statistical Study of Legal Program Consumers, (2008) (not yet published; data on file with Through the Looking Glass).

522 Alicia Gallegos, “What Should Doctors Do When Ill Caregivers Can’t Perform Their Duties?” American Medical News, October 24, 2011, http://www.ama-assn.org/amednews/2011/10/24/prca1024.htm.

523 Id.

524 Id.

525 Courtney Hutchison, “Judge Cites Mom’s Breast Cancer in Denying Custody of Children.” ABC News Medical Unit, May 10, 2011, http://abcnews.go.com/Health/BreastCancerCenter/north-carolina-mom-breast-cancer-loses-custody/story?id=13546870.

526 Id.

527 Megan Kirshbaum, Daniel Taube, and Rosalind Lasian Baer, “Parents with Disabilities: Problems in Family Court Practice,” Journal of the Center for Families, Children and the Courts 4 (2003): 38

528 Id. at 31.

529 Id. at 32.

530 595 N.W.2d 1 (N.D. 1999).

531 Kirshbaum, Taube, and Baer, Supra note 527, 32–33.

532 Sherisse Pham, “California Judge Says Paralyzed Mother Has Right to Visits With Her Children.” ABC News, March 25, 2011, http://abcnews.go.com/US/paralyzed-mother-abbie-dorn-annual-visitation-rights-children/story?id=13223968#.TtPe0kdTdaU.

533 Id.

534 Id.

535 Id.

536 Id.

537 Pseudonym used to protect confidentiality. In-person conversation, January 20, 2012.

538 Kirshbaum, Taube, and Baer, Supra note 527, 33–34.

539 Melanie Yergeau, “Circle Wars: Reshaping the Typical Autism Essay,” Disability Studies Quarterly 30(1) (2010),http://dsq-sds.org/article/view/1063/1222.

540 Kimberly Rogers et al., “Who Cares? Revisiting Empathy in Asperger Syndrome,” Journal of Autism and Developmental Disabilities 37 (2007): 709–715, http://www.cog.psy.ruhr-uni-bochum.de/papers/2007/Rogers %282007 %29_JAutismDevDisord.pdf; Sheila Jennings Linehan and Jan Schloss, “Who’s Minding the Children? Child Contact and the Neurologically Impaired Parent,” Journal of International Family Law 4 (2003): 205–209,http://www.familymattersassociates.ca/images/WhosMindingtheChildrenInternationalFamilyLaw.pdf.

541 Id.; Sheila K. Jennings, “High Conflict and Asperger’s Syndrome,” Mediate.com (2003).

542 Autism Self Advocacy Network, “Cassandra’s Impact on Autistic Victims of Domestic Violence” (2009),http://autisticadvocacy.org/2009/05/cassandras-impact-on-autistic-victims-of-domestic-violence.

543 Jennifer Spreng, “The Private World of Juvenile Court: Mothers, Mental Illness and the Relentless Machinery of the State,” Duke Journal of Gender Law and Policy 17 (2010): 196.

544 Callow, Buckland, and Jones, Supra note 98, 3.

545 Id.

546 Kirshbaum, Taube, and Baer, Supra note 527, 37.

547 Id. at 37–38.

548 Duffy Dillon, “Child Custody and the Developmentally Disabled Parent,” Wisconsin Law Review 2000 (2000): 130–131.

549 Breeden, Olkin, and Taube, Supra note 95, 445.

550 Kirshbaum, Taube, and Baer, Supra note 527, 31.

551 Id. at 38.

552 Id.

553 Id.

554 Id. at 40.

555 Vignette provided by Through the Looking Glass.

556 Dillon, Supra note 548, 147.

557 Id. at 147–148.

558 Id.

559 Vignette provided by Through the Looking Glass.

560 Dillon, Supra note 548, 149.

561 Kirshbaum, Taube, and Baer, Supra note 499, 28.

562 Id.

563 Id.

564 Id.

565 Id.

566 Hayman, Jr., Supra note 286, 1242.

567 Kirshbaum, Taube, and Baer, Supra note 527, 35–36.

568 Id.

569 Id.

570 Id.

571 Id. at 36.

572 Id. at 35.

573 Legal Services Corporation, “Congress Votes for $348 million in LSC Funding,” November 21, 2011,http://www.lsc.gov/media/press-releases/congress-votes-348-million-lsc-funding.

574 Legal Services Corporation, “Staff Reductions Hit Legal Aid Programs,” January 26, 2012,http://www.lsc.gov/media/press-releases/staff-reductions-hit-legal-aid-programs.

575 Dillon, Supra note 548, 146.

576 Kirshbaum, Taube, and Baer, Supra note 527, 35.

577 Elana Nightingale Dawson, “Lawyers’ Responsibilities Under the ADA: Ensuring Effective Communication Access for the Deaf and Hard of Hearing,” Valparaiso University Law Review 45(3) 2011: 1143.

578 Kirshbaum, Taube, and Baer, Supra note 527, 36.

579 Id. at 37.

580 Id.

581 Id.

582 Id.

583 Callow, Buckland, and Jones, Supra note 98, 12.

584 Id.

585 Id. at 1.

586 Robert D. Zaslow, “Child Custody, Visitation, and the HIV Virus: Revisiting the Best Interests Doctrine to Insure Impartial Parental Rights Determinations for HIV-Infected Parents,” Journal of Pharmacy and Law 3 (1994): 64.

587 Margaret A Nosek et al., “Vulnerabilities for Abuse Among Women with Disabilities, Sexuality and Disability 19(3) 2001: 177–189.

588 Daniel W. Shuman, “The Role of Mental Health Experts in Custody Decisions: Science, Psychological Tests, and Clinical Judgment,” Family Law Quarterly 36 (2002): 135–162.

589 American Psychological Association, “Guidelines for Child Custody Evaluations in Family Law Proceedings,” American Psychologist 65(9) (2010): 863–867.

590 “Guidelines for Psychological Evaluations in Child Protection Matters,” last modified 2011,http://www.apa.org/practice/guidelines/child-protection.pdf.

591 Shuman, Supra note 588; Robert E. Emery, Randy K. Otto, and William T. O’Donohue, “A Critical Assessment of Child Custody Evaluations: Limited Science and a Flawed System,” Psychological Science in the Public Interest 6 (2005): 1–29; Gary B. Melton et al., Psychological Evaluations for the Courts: A Handbook For Mental Health Professionals and Lawyers, 3rd ed. (New York: Guilford Press 2007), 494–538; Breeden, Olkin, and Taube, Supra note 95, 445–455.

592 McWey, Henderson, and Tice, Supra note 336, 195.

593 Id. at 202.

594 Id. at 202 (internal citations omitted).

595 American Psychological Association, Supra note 589, 863–867; “Guidelines for Psychological Evaluations”; American Psychological Association, “Guidelines for Assessment of and Intervention with Persons with Disabilities,” American Psychologist 67(1) (2012): 43–62.

596 American Psychological Association, Supra note 589, 865.

597 “Guidelines for Psychological Evaluations.”

598 American Psychological Association, Supra note 595.

599 Kay, Supra note 273, 33.

600 Benjamin E. Fife, A Study of the Quality of Psychological Assessments of Parents with Disabilities Involved in Termination of Parental Rights Cases (Berkeley, CA: Wright Institute, 2010).

601 Id. at 149.

602 29 U.S.C. § 794.

603 Mary Anne Nester, “Psychometric Testing and Reasonable Accommodations for Persons with Disabilities,” in Susanne M. Bruyere and Janet O’Keefe (Eds.), Implications of the Americans with Disabilities Act for Psychology (p. 25) (Washington DC: Springer Publishing Co., 1994).

604 Timothy R. Elliott and Robert L. Umlauf, “Measurement of Personality and Psychopathology Following Acquired Physical Disability,” in L.A. Cushman and M.J. Scherer (Eds.), Psychological Assessment in Medical Rehabilitation (pp. 325–358) (Washington, DC: American Psychological Association, 1995); Jonathan Sandoval, “Testing in a Changing World: An Introduction,” in Jonathan Sandoval et al. (Eds.), Test Interpretation and Diversity: Achieving Equity in Assessment (pp. 3–16) (Washington, DC: American Psychological Association, 1999); American Psychological Association, “Guidelines for Assessment.”

605 Rhoda Olkin, What Psychotherapists Should Know About Disability (New York: Guilford Press 1999), 210.

606 David M. Brodzinsky, “On The Use and Misuse of Psychological Testing in Child Custody Evaluations,” Professional Psychology: Research and Practice 24(2) (1993): 213–219; Mark W. Roberts, “ACCESS,” in Barbara S. Plake and James C. Impara (Eds.), The Fourteenth Mental Measurements Yearbook (pp. 1–4) (Lincoln, NE: Buros Institute of Mental Measurements, 2001); Emery, Otto, and O’Donohue, Supra note 591, 1–29; James N. Bow et al., “Testing in Child Custody Evaluations – Selection, Usage, and Daubert Admissibility: A Survey of Psychologists,” Journal of Forensic Psychology Practice 6(2) (2006): 17–38; Melton et al., Supra note 591; Breeden, Olkin, and Taube, Supra note 95.

607 “Guidelines for Psychological Evaluations.”

608 Esther Strauss, Elisabeth M.S. Sherman, and Otfried Spreen, A Compendium of Neuropsychological Tests, 3rd ed. (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2006).

609 Benjamin Fife and Megan Kirshbaum, “Norms and Validity of Tests and Measures Used in Custody Situations with Parents with Disabilities” (unpublished raw data, 2012).

610 McConnell and Llewellyn, Supra note 437, 309.

611 Jennifer A. Culhane, “A Challenge of California Family Code Section 7827: Application of This Statute Violates the Fundamental Rights of Parents Who Have Been Labeled Mentally Disabled,” Whittier Journal of Child and Family Advocacy 3 (2003): 142.

612 Lawless, Supra note 229, 514.

613 McConnell and Llewellyn, Supra note 437, 885.

614 Teresa Ostler, Assessment of Parenting Competency in Mothers with Mental Illness (Baltimore, MD: Paul H. Brookes Publishing Co., 2008).

615 Alexander J. Tymchuck and Maurice Feldman, “Parents with Mental Retardation and Their Children: Review of Research Relevant to Professional Practice,” Canadian Psychology 32 (3) (1991): 492.

616 Fife, Supra note 600.

617 Melton et al., Supra note 591.

618 Breeden, Olkin, and Taube, Supra note 95.

619 Irene W. Leigh et al., “Providing Psychological Services to Deaf Individuals: A Response to New Perceptions of Diversity,” Professional Psychology: Research and Practice 27(4) (1996): 364–371; Michael J. Rubino III, “Psychologists’ Clinical Judgments About Female Client with a Visible Disability, Hidden Disability or No Disability” (PhD diss., California School of Professional Psychology, 2001); Rhoda Olkin and Constance Pledger, “Can Disability Studies and Psychology Join Hands?” American Psychologist 58(4) (2003): 296–304; Diane L. Strike, Thomas M. Skovholt, and Thomas J. Hummel, “Mental Health Professionals’ Disability Competence: Measuring Self-Awareness, Perceived Knowledge, and Perceived Skills,” Rehabilitation Psychology 49(4) (2004): 321–327; Breeden, Olkin, and Taube, Supra note 95.

620 Olkin, Supra note 605; Olkin and Pledger, Supra note 619.

621 Olkin and Pledger, Supra note 619; Irene W. Leigh et al., “Survey of Psychological Services to Clients With Disability: The Need for Awareness,” Rehabilitation Psychology 49(1) (2004): 48–54.

622 American Psychological Association, “Guidelines for Assessment.”

623 American Psychological Association, Supra note 589, 865.

624 “Guidelines for Psychological Evaluations.”

625 Breeden, Olkin, and Taube, Supra note 95.

626 “Guidelines for Psychological Evaluations.”

627 Fife, “Psychological Assessments.”

628 Megan Kirshbaum, “Expert Witness Reports for Court” (unpublished raw data, 2012).

629 Kirshbaum, Taube, and Baer, Supra note 527; Fife, Supra note 600; Kirshbaum, Supra note 628.

630 Fife, Supra note 600; Kirshbaum, Supra note 628.

631 Id.

632 Fife, Supra note 600.

633 Id.; Kirshbaum, Taube, and Lasian Baer, Supra note 527.

634 Id.

635 Fife, Supra note 600.

636 Kathryn A. LaFortune and Bruce N. Carpenter, “Custody Evaluations: A Survey of Mental Health Professionals,”Behavioral Sciences and the Law 16(2) (1998): 207–224; James N. Bow and Francella A. Quinnell, “Psychologists’ Current Practices and Procedures in Child Custody Evaluations: Five years After American Psychological Association Guidelines,”Professional Psychology: Research and Practice 32(3) (2001): 261–268.

637 C.A. Ahern and C.M. Grandison, “Inclusivity in Developmental Neuropsychological Assessment,” in E. Fenichel (Ed.),Responding to Infants and Parents: Inclusive Interaction in Assessment, Consultation, and Treatment in Infant/Family Practice (pp. 23–27) (Washington, DC:, Zero to Three, 2000).

638 Fife, Supra note 600.

639 B.M. Schutz et al., Solomon’s Sword: A Practical Guide to Conducting Child Custody Evaluations (San Francisco: Jossey-Bass, 1989), 78.

640 Breeden, Olkin, and Taube, Supra note 95.

641 American Psychological Association, “Guidelines for Assessment,” 52.

642 Kirshbaum, Taube, and Baer, Supra note 527; Fife, Supra note 600; Kirshbaum Supra note 628.

643 Breeden, Olkin, and Taube, Supra note 95.

644 Ronald M. Ruff, “A Friendly Critique of Neuropsychology: Facing the Challenges of Our Future,” Archives of Clinical Neuropsychology 18(8) (2003): 847–864.

 

645 Oliver Sacks, Seeing Voices: A Journey Into the World of the Deaf (Berkeley, CA: University of California Press, 1989).

646 Paul Preston, Mother Father Deaf: Living Between Sound and Silence (Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1994).

647 Kathie Corbus and Sherrie Hansen, Strategies and Adaptations in Working with Parents with Intellectual Disabilities(Berkeley, CA: Through the Looking Glass, 2006).

648 Kirshbaum, Supra note 628.

649 Megan Kirshbaum, “Evaluating Evaluations of Parents with Intellectual Disabilities – Guidelines for Improving Practice”, paper presented at the annual meeting of Zero to Three, Leadership Initiative, National Training Institute, Washington, DC, 2000.

650 Kirshbaum, Supra note 628.

651 Fife, Supra note 600.

652 Kirshbaum and Olkin, Supra note 34, 65–80.

653 American Psychological Association, “Guidelines for Assessment.”

654 Through the Looking Glass, Developing Adaptive Equipment and Adaptive Techniques for Physically Disabled Parents and Their Babies Within the Context of Psychosocial Services (Berkeley, CA: Through the Looking Glass, 1995); Christi Tuleja et al., Continuation of Adaptive Parenting Equipment Development (Berkeley, CA: Through the Looking Glass, 1998); Christi Tuleja and Anitra DeMoss, “Baby Care Assistive Technology,” Technology and Disability 11(1, 2) (1999): 71–78; Anitra DeMoss et al., Adaptive Parenting Equipment: Evaluation, Development, Dissemination and Marketing (Berkeley, CA: Through the Looking Glass, 2000).

655 Megan Kirshbaum, “A Disability Culture Perspective on Early Intervention with Parents with Physical or Cognitive Disabilities and Their Infants,” Infants and Young Children 13(2) (2000): 9–20.

656 Corbus and Hansen, Supra note 647.

657 Kirshbaum, Supra note 655.

658 Conley-Jung and Olkin, Supra note 290, 14–29; Debbie Bacon, Hands-On Parenting: A Resource Guide for Parents Who Are Blind or Partially Sighted (Berkeley, CA: Through the Looking Glass, 2006).

659 Maurice A. Feldman, Joseph M. Ducharme, and Laurie Case, “Using Self-Instructional Pictorial Manuals to Teach Child-Care Skills to Mothers with Intellectual Disabilities,” Behavior Modification 23(3) (1999): 480–497; Maurice A. Feldman and Laurie Case, “Teaching Child-Care and Safety Skills to Parents with Intellectual Disabilities Through Self-Learning,” Journal of Intellectual and Development Disability 24(1) (1999): 27–44; Gwynnyth Llewellyn et al., ”Promoting Health and Home Safety for Children of Parents with Intellectual Disability: A Randomized Controlled Trial,” Research in Developmental Disabilities 24(6) (2003): 405–431; Helen James, “Promoting Effective Working with Parents with Learning Disabilities,” Child Abuse Review 13(1) (2004): 31–41.

660 Kirshbaum, Supra note 655.

661 Kirshbaum, Supra note 628.

662 Kirshbaum, Taube, and Baer, Supra note 527; Fife Supra note 600.

663 Megan Kirshbaum, “Babycare Assistive Technology for Parents with Physical Disabilities: Relational, Systems & Cultural Perspectives,” American Family Therapy Academy Newsletter 67 (1997): 20–26.

664 Breeden, Olkin, and Taube, Supra note 95, 445–455; Fife, Supra note 600.

665 Kirshbaum, Supra note 628.

666 Id.

667 Kirshbaum, Supra note 663.

668 Megan Kirshbaum, “Parents with Physical Disabilities and Their Babies,” Zero to Three 8(5) (1988): 8–15.

669 Megan Kirshbaum, “Serving Families with Disability Issues: Through the Looking Glass,” Marriage and Family Review21(1–2) (1995): 9–28.

670. Preston, Mother Father Deaf.

671. Kirshbaum, Supra note 628.

672. Kirshbaum, Supra note 663.

673. Kirshbaum, Taube, and Baer, Supra note 527, 40.

674. Kirshbaum, Taube, and Baer, Supra note 527; Breeden, Olkin, and Taube, Supra note 95; Fife, Supra note 600.

675. McConnell and Llewellyn, Supra note 437, 297–317.

676. American Psychological Association, “Guidelines for Assessment.”

677. “Baby Care Assessment Tool,” Disability, Pregnancy and Parenthood International 59 (2007).

678. Anonymous interview with parent and Judith Rogers by Megan Kirshbaum, December 29, 2011, Berkeley, CA.

679Pseudonym used to protect confidentiality. Instant message conversation, October 5, 2011.

680 Hanan, Supra note 101, 167–168.

681 Id.

682 DeVries, Supra note 103, 141–142.

683 Id.

684 Shauna L. Gardino, Andrew E. Russell, and Teresa K. Woodruff, “Adoption After Cancer: Adoption Agency Attitudes and Perspectives on the Potential to Parent Post-Cancer,” author manuscript, Cancer Treatment and Research, 156 (2010): 153–170.

685 DeVries, Supra note 103, 144–145.

686 Id.

687 Child Welfare Information Gateway, Supra note 106.

688 Hanan, Supra note 101, 174–175.

689 Mills, Supra note 108, 73–74.

690 Child Welfare Information Gateway, Supra note 109.

691 Id.

692 Id.

693 Id.

694 Id.

695 Id.

696 Id.

697 Id.

698 Id.

699 Id.

700 Id.

701 Id.

702 Id.

703 Id.

704 Id.

705 Mark T. McDermott, “Independent Adoption,” The Adoption Guide, accessed February 24, 2012,http://www.theadoptionguide.com/options/articles/independent-adoption.

706 Child Welfare Information Gateway, Supra note 109.

707 Id.

708 Id.

709 Child Welfare Information Gateway, “Use of Advertising and Facilitators in Adoptive Placements: Summary of State Laws,” (April 2009), http://www.childwelfare.gov/systemwide/laws_policies/statutes/advertisingall.pdf.

710 Kleiman, Supra note 110, 327.

711 Adoption.com, Supra note 111.

712 DeVries, Supra note 103, 138–139.

713 Id.

714 Child Welfare Information Gateway, Supra note 109.

715 Id.

716 Id.

717 Child Welfare Information Gateway, Supra note 115.

718 Id.

719 Id.

720 Hague Conference on Private International Law, Supra note 118.

721 See Child Welfare Information Gateway, Supra note 115.

722 42 U.S.C. § 12131 et seq.

723 42 U.S.C. § 12181.

724 28 C.F.R. § 36.104.

725 28 C.F.R. § 36.204.

726 28 C.F.R. § 36.301(a).

727 Madelyn Freundlich, “The Americans with Disabilities Act: What Adoption Agencies Need to Know, The Evan B. Donaldson Adoption Institute, accessed February 24, 2012, http://www.adoptioninstitute.org/policy/ada.html.

728 Id.

729 345 F.3d 593 (2003).

730 Linda A. Cronin, “Adoption Odyssey: Finding a Foreign Child to Love,” Action Online: Magazine of the United Spinal Association, May 2007, http://www.unitedspinal.org/publications/action/2007/05/18/adoption-odyssey-finding-a-foreign-child-to-love.

731 DeVries, Supra note 103, 146.

732 Elizabeth Bartholet, “What’s Wrong with Adoption Law?” International Journal of Children’s Rights 4 (1996): 265–266.

733 Shade, Supra note 65, 182.

734 Freundlich, Supra note 727.

735 Id.

736 Gardino, Russell, and Woodruff, Supra note 684, 153–170.

737 Id.

738 Id.

739 Pseudonym used to protect confidentiality. Telephone conversation, October 5, 2011.

740 Bartholet, Supra note 732, 265–266.

741 Id.

742 Kimberly A. Collier, “Love v. Love Handles: Should Obese People be Precluded from Adopting a Child Solely Upon their Weight?” Texas Wesleyan Law Review 15 (2008): 38–39.

743 Id.

744 Id.

745 Disaboom, “Parents with Disabilities: The Moms’ Network Shares Info, Resources,” accessed November 15, 2011.http://www.disaboom.com/parents-with-disabilities/parents-with-disabilities-the-quotmoms-networkquot-shares-info-resources.

746 Id. at 185–186.

747 Id. at 189–190.

748 Id. at 184.

749 Id. at 185–186.

750 Id. at 188.

751 Id.

752 Id.

753 Id.

754 Id.

755 Id. at 189.

756 Id.

757 Id.

758 Gardino, Russell, and Woodruff, Supra note 684, 153–170.

759 Id.

760 Pseudonym used to protect confidentiality. Telephone conversation, October 3, 2011.

761 Mills, Supra note 108, 104–105.

762 Freundlich, Supra note 727.

763 28 C.F.R. §§ 35.130(h), 36.301.

764 Id. at §§ 35.139, 36.208.

765 Freundlich, Supra note 727.

766 21 F.Supp.2d 235 (DNY 1998).

767 Hanan, Supra note 101, 213–216; See Mich. Comp. Laws Ann. § 722.957.

768 Id.

769 Wis. Stat. § 48.82(4)-(6) 48.82.

770 Idaho Code Ann. § 16-1501.

771 Idaho Code Ann. § 16-1501B.

772 Associated Press, “Va. Board Allows Adoption Agencies to Discriminate Based on Sexual Orientation, Other Factors,”Washington Post, December 15, 2011.

773 Id.

774 N.D. Cent. Code § 50-12-03.

775 U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, “Protection from Race, Color, and National Origin Discrimination in Adoption and Foster Care,” accessed February 17, 2012,http://www.hhs.gov/ocr/civilrights/resources/specialtopics/adoption/index.html.

776 Department of Justice, “Nevada Foster Care Agency Agrees to Provide Effective Communication with Deaf Mother who Seeks to be a Foster Parent,” March 20, 2002, http://www.justice.gov/opa/pr/2002/March/02_crt_164.htm.

777 Id.

778 Id.

779 42 U.S.C. § 1996b.

780 59 Cal. Rptr. 323 (Ct. App. 1967).

781 Id. at 327.

782 Id. at 328.

783 Mills, Supra note 108, 69.

784 Id.

785 National Adoption Center, “Make Disabled Parent Adoption Happen.” Accessed November 15, 2011.http://www.adopt.org/assembled/disabled_parents.html.

786 Kleiman, Supra note 110, 344–347.

787 Cronin, Supra note 730.

788 Ella Callow, The Adoption Guide for Parents with Disabilities (Berkeley, CA: Through the Looking Glass, 2008), 6.

789 U.S. Department of State, “China, Intercountry Adoption,” Accessed November 21, 2011.http://adoption.state.gov/country_information/country_specific_info.php?country-select=china.

790 U.S. Department of State, “Statistics—Intercountry Adoption,” accessed March 1, 2012,http://adoption.state.gov/about_us/statistics.php.

791 U.S. Department of State, Supra note 789.

792 U.S. Department of State, “Russia, Intercountry Adoption,” accessed March 1, 2012,http://adoption.state.gov/country_information/country_specific_info.php?country-select=russia.

793 U.S. Department of State, “Ukraine, Intercountry Adoption,” accessed March 1, 2012,http://adoption.state.gov/country_information/country_specific_info.php?country-select=ukraine.

794 Kids to Adopt, “Bulgaria Adoption Program,” Accessed December 15, 2011. http://kidstoadopt.org/adoption-programs/bulgaria-adoption/See also U.S. Department of State, “Bulgaria, Intercountry Adoption,” Accessed December 15, 2011. http://adoption.state.gov/country_information/country_specific_info.php?country-select=bulgaria.

795 Pseudonym used to protect confidentiality. Telephone conversation, October 3, 2011.

796 Adoption101.com, “International Adoption,” accessed March 21, 2012,http://www.adoption101.com/international_adoption.html.

797 Id.

798 Cronin, Supra note 730.

799 Id.

800 Pseudonym used to protect confidentiality. Telephone conversation, October 6, 2011.

801 Cronin, Supra note 730.

802 Id.

803 Colleen Mastony, “Blind Couple Step Out as Parents,” Chicago Tribune, May 11, 2011,http://articles.chicagotribune.com/2011-05-11/news/ct-met-blind-adopting-blind-20110511_1_rupa-cta-bus-paula-sprecher.

804 Id.

805 Id.

806 Colorado Cross-Disability Coalition, “Rocky Mountain Women’s Health Care,” accessed December 2, 2011,http://www.ccdconline.org/legal-case/07-28-2009/rocky-mountain-womens-health-care.

807 Id.

808 Id.

809 Id.

810 Id.

811 Id.

812 “Blind Woman Loses Federal Discrimination Lawsuit Against Fertility Clinic,” USA Today, November 21, 2003,http://www.usatoday.com/news/nation/2003-11-21-fertility-lawsuit_x.htm.

813 Id.

814 Id.

815 Kimberly L. Mutcherson, “Disabling Dreams of Parenthood: The Fertility Industry, Anti-Discrimination, and Parents with Disabilities,” Law and Inequality 27 (2009): 347.

816 “Frequently Asked Questions about Infertility,” American Society for Reproductive Medicine, accessed February 9, 2012, http://www.asrm.org/awards/index.aspx?id=3012.

817 “Intrauterine Insemination,” American Society for Reproductive Medicine, accessed February 2, 2012,http://www.asrm.org/topics/detail.aspx?id=1277.

818 Shade, Supra note 65, 169–170.

819 Id.

820 Id. at 168–169.

821 “ART Fact Sheet,” European Society of Human Reproduction and Embryology, last modified June 2010,http://www.eshre.eu/ESHRE/English/Guidelines-Legal/ART-fact-sheet/page.aspx/1061.

822 Shade, Supra note 65, 169–170.

823 “Personhood Legislation,” Resolve: The National Infertility Association, last modified October 2010,http://www.resolve.org/about/personhood-legislation.html.

824 Thomas D. Flanigan, “Assisted Reproductive Technologies and Insurance under the Americans with Disabilities Act,”Brandeis Law Journal 38 (2000): 777.

825 Jaime Anno, “Regulating ‘Choice;’ Sterilization Abuse in the United States, Then and Now,” Reproductive Justice Briefing Book: A Primer on Reproductive Justice and Social Change (New York: Pro-Choice Public Education Project, 2007), http://protectchoice.org/downloads/Reproductive %20Justice %20Briefing %20Book.pdf.

826 Judith F. Daar, “Accessing Reproductive Technologies: Invisible Barriers, Indelible Harms,” Berkley Journal of Gender, Law and Justice, 23(1) (2008): 73.

827 Carrie Killoran, “Women with Disabilities Having Children: It’s Our Right Too,” Sexuality and Disability 12 (2) (1994): 122.

828 National Council on Disability, The Current State of Health Care for People with Disabilities (Washington, DC: 2009),http://www.ncd.gov/publications/2009/Sept302009.

829 Id.

830 Id.

831 Id.

832 Coleman, Supra no. 2, 20.

833 42 U.S.C. § 12181.

834 Id.

835 Skinner v. Oklahoma, 316 U.S. 535, 541 (1942).

836 Mutcherson, Supra note 815, 311.

837 Id. at 311, 313.

838 Id. at 311.

839 Id. at 313.

840 Shade, Supra note 65, 170–171.

841 Id.

842 Id.

843 Id.

844 Id.

845 Id. at 171–172.

846 Id.

847 Mutcherson, Supra note 815, 316–317.

848 Id.

849 Mutcherson, Supra note 815, 312.

850 42 U.S.C.A. § 12182(b)(3); See, e.g., Jairath v. Dyer, 972 F.Supp. 1461, 1469 (N.D. Ga. 1997) (“The legality of the defendant’s medical decision not to treat plaintiff therefore depends on whether the cosmetic surgery actually posed a ‘direct threat’ to plaintiff’s health.”).

851 28 C.F.R. § 36.208.

852 Id.

853 Mutcherson, Supra note 815, 343.

854 Id. at 343–344.

855 Id.

856 Id.

857 Id.

858 Id.

859 Id.

860 Id.

861 Id. at 177.

862 Id.

863 28 C.F.R. § 36.208.

864 Elizabeth Pendo, “Disability, Equipment Barriers, and Women’s Health: Using the ADA to Provide Meaningful Access,”Saint Louis University Journal of Health Law and Policy 2 (2008): 43.

865 Id.

866 Id.

867 Pseudonym used to protect confidentiality. Telephone conversation, October 7, 2011.

868 Pseudonym used to protect confidentiality. Telephone conversation, November 1, 2011.

869 Center for Genetics and Society, “Assisted Reproductive Technologies: Overview and Perspective Using a Reproductive Justice Framework,” accessed February 9, 2012, http://www.geneticsandsociety.org/downloads/ART.pdf.

870 Our Bodies Ourselves, “Prenatal Testing and Disability Rights,” accessed February 9, 2012,http://www.ourbodiesourselves.org/book/companion.asp?id=21&compID=43.

871 Id.

872 Global Library of Women’s Medicine, “Gynecologic and Obstetric Issues Confronting Women with Disabilities,” accessed January 27, 2012, http://www.glowm.com/index.html?p=glowm.cml/section_view&articleid=76.

873 Mutcherson, Supra note 815, 364.

874 John A. Robertson, “Procreative Liberty and Offspring in Assisted Reproduction,” American Journal of Law and Medicine 30 (2004): 11.

875 Killoran, Supra note 827, 124.

876 Mutcherson, Supra note 815, 311.

877 Shade, Supra note 65, 179–180.

878 Id.

879 Id.

880 M. Spriggs and T. Charles, “Should HIV-Discordant Couples Have Access to Assisted Reproductive Technologies?”Journal of Medical Ethics, January 25, 2012, p. 326

881 Id.

882 Id.

883 Mutcherson, Supra note 815, 314.

884 American Society for Reproductive Medicine, “Child-Rearing Ability and the Provision of Fertility Services,” (2009), accessed November 18, 2011.http://www.asrm.org/uploadedFiles/ASRM_Content/News_and_Publications/Ethics_Committee_Reports_and_Statements/childrearing.pdf.

885 Id.

886 Richard F. Storrow, “The Bioethics of Prospective Parenthood: In Pursuit of the Proper Standard for Gatekeeping in Infertility Clinics,” Cardozo Law Review 28 (2007): 2287.

887 Mutcherson, Supra note 815, 316.

888 Id.

889 Id. at 312.

890 The section is adapted from Lindsey Coffey, “A Rights-Based Claim to Surrogacy: Article 23 of the Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities,” Michigan State University Journal of International Law 20 (2012): 259–291.

891 Pseudonym used to protect confidentiality. E-mail message to author, January 23, 2012.

892 “The Cost of Infertility,” Resolve: The National Infertility Association, accessed January 30, 2012,http://www.resolve.org/family-building-options/insurance_coverage/the-costs-of-infertility-treatment.html.

893 Id.

894 Id.

895 “Latest U.S. Disability Statistics and Facts,” Disability World towards Tomorrow, last modified July 26, 2011,http://www.disabled-world.com/disability/statistics/census-figures.php.

896 Id.

897 “Poverty in the United States: A Snapshot,” National Center for Law and Economic Justice, accessed March 13, 2012), http://www.nclej.org/poverty-in-the-us.php.

898 Erin Lynn Connolly, “Constitutional Issues Raised by States’ Exclusion of Fertility Drugs from Medicaid Coverage in Light of Mandated Coverage of Viagra,” Vanderbilt Law Review 54:2 (2001): 451.

899 Id. at 456.

900 Elizabeth Pendo, “Disability, Equipment Barriers, and Women’s Health: Using the ADA to Provide Meaningful Access,”St. Louis University Journal of Health Law and Policy 2 (2008): 48.

901 Id.

902 Connolly, Supra note 898, 464.

903 Id. at 465.

904 Id.

905 Pendo, Supra note 900, 47.

906 Michelle Andrews, “Should Infertility Treatment be Considered Essential?” Kaiser Health News, January 24, 2011, accessed January 30, 2012, http://www.kaiserhealthnews.org/Features/Insuring-Your-Health/michelle-andrews-on-infertility-coverage.aspx.

907 “Insurance Coverage in Your State,” Resolve: The National Infertility Association, accessed February 1, 2012,http://www.resolve.org/family-building-options/insurance_coverage/state-coverage.html.

908 Id.

909 Id.

910 Id.

911 See, Id. for example.

912 Andrews, Supra note 906.

913 Id.

914 “Health Insurance 101,” Resolve: The National Infertility Association, accessed January 30, 2012,http://www.resolve.org/family-building-options/insurance_coverage/health-insurance-101.html.

915 Shorge Sato, “A Little Bit Disabled: Infertility and the Americans with Disabilities Act,” NYU Journal of Legislation and Public Policy 5 (2001-02): 198.

916 Id. See also “Insurance Coverage Facts,” Resolve: The National Infertility Association, accessed December 19, 2011,http://www.resolve.org/family-building-options/insurance_coverage/insurance-coverage-facts.html.

917 Id.

918 Id.

919 Sato, Supra note 915, 198. Sato also cites another study that found that the average cost would range from approximately $.60 to $2.00 per month.

920 “Insurance Coverage Facts,” Supra note 915.

921 Id.

922 Daar, Supra note 826, 23.

923 Id.

924 Adrienne Asch, “Reproductive Technology and Disability,” in Sherrill Cohen and Nadine Taube (Eds.), Reproductive Laws for the 1990s: A Briefing Handbook (Clifton, NJ: Humana Press, 1989).

925 Id.

926 This section is adapted from Coffey, Supra note 890.

927 Department of Health and Human Services, Breaking Down Barriers to Health Care for Women with Disabilities, (2004),www.hhs.gov/od/summit/whitepaper.doc.

928 Michael A. Stein, “Same Struggle, Different Difference: ADA Accommodations as Antidiscrimination,” University of Pennsylvania Law Review 153(2) (2004): 579.

929 42 U.S.C. § 12181; 28 C.F.R. § 36.302.

930 Id.

931 This section is adapted from Coffey, Supra note 931.

932 Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities, Supra note 188.

933 Id.

934 Id. Nonetheless, in all cases the best interests of the child shall be paramount.

935 Id.

936 See, e.g., Coleman, Supra note. 2, 30 (referencing surveys revealing that ART practitioners denied treatment to prospective parents who suffered from HIV and severe lupus. Another survey found that 79 percent of practitioners would deny ARTs to a patient at risk for transmitting a genetic disorder).

937 Id. at 26–29.

938 Id.

939 Id.

940 Id.

941 Id.

942 Spriggs and Charles, Supra note 880, 325.

943 Id.

944 This section is adapted from Coffey, Supra note 890.

945 James F. Smith et al., “Fertility Treatment and Outcomes Among Couples Seeking Fertility Case: Data from a Prospective Fertility Cohort in the United States,” Fertility and Sterility 95 (Jan. 2011): 1.

946 Id.

947 For a discussion on the right to access surrogacy, see Coffey, Supra note 890.

948 Mutcherson, Supra note 815, 364.

949 Ora Prilleltensky, “My Child Is Not My Carer: Mothers with Physical Disabilities and the Well-Being of Children,”Disability and Society 19(3) (2004): 210 (internal citations omitted).

950 Kirshbaum and Olkin, Supra note 34, 66.

951 Id. at 66–67.

952 Id.

953 Shade, Supra note 65, 160–161.

954 Preston, Supra note 35.

955 Id.

956 Id. (internal citations omitted).

957 Warsow, Supra note 450, 207.

958 Diane T. Marsh and Rex M. Dickens, How to Cope with Mental Illness in your Family: A Guide for Siblings, Offspring, and Parents, (New York: Tarcher/Putnam, 1998).

959 Marsh, Supra note 266, 30.

960 Gwillim, Supra note 230, 360.

961 Preston, Supra note 35.

962 Lightfoot, Hill, and LaLiberte, Supra note 23, 929.

963 Watkins, Supra note 68, 1450–1451.

964 IASSID Special Interest Research Group on Parents and Parenting with Intellectual Disabilities, “Parents Labeled with Intellectual Disability: Position of the IASSID SIRG on Parents and Parenting with Intellectual Disabilities,” Journal of Applied Research in Intellectual Disabilities 21 (2008): 300.

965 J. Faureholm, ‘‘You Have to Fight— About Childhood and Adolescence of Children with Parents Who Have Intellectual Disabilities” (PhD dissertation, Danish University of Education, 2006).

966 Tim Booth and Wendy Booth, “Against the Odds: Growing up with Parents Who Have Learning Difficulties,” Mental Retardation 38 (2000): 1–14.

967 IASSID, Supra note 964.

968 Collentine, Supra note 261, 542.

969 Lightfoot, Hill, and LaLiberte, Supra note 23, 929.

970 Watkins, Supra note 68, 1454.

971 F.M. Buck and G.W. Hohmann, “Personality, Behavior, Values, and Family Relations of Children of Fathers with Spinal Cord Injury,” Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation 62 (1981):432–438.

972 Preston, Supra note 35.

973 Kirshbaum and Olkin, Supra note 34, 78.

974 Lisa Jo Cohen, “Mothers’ Perceptions of the Influence of Their Physical Disabilities on the Developmental Tasks of Children” (PhD dissertation, California School of Professional Psychology, 1998).

975 Rhoda Olkin et al., “Comparison of Parents With and Without Disabilities Raising Teens: Information From the NHIS and Two National Surveys,” Rehabilitation Psychology 51(1) (2006):43–49.

976 P. Preston and J. Jacob, national survey of students who have parents with disabilities. Unpublished preliminary analyses, 2012.

977 Prilleltensky, Supra note 949, 219.

978 Id.

979 Id. at 220.

980 Id. at 221.

981 Lightfoot and LaLiberte, Supra note 308, 390.

982 Lisa Jones, “I Know That I’m Raising Really Good Girls,” January 5, 2010, http://bloom-parentingkidswithdisabilities.blogspot.com/2010/01/does-physical-disability-make-parent.html.

983 Olmstead v. L.C. ex rel. Zimring, 527 U.S. 581 (1999).

984 Stefan, Supra note 136, 140.

985 Pseudonym used to protect confidentiality. E-mail message to author, February 28, 2012.

986 Mitchell P. LaPlante, Charlene Harrington, and Taewoon Kang, “Estimating Paid and Unpaid Hours of Personal Assistance Services in Activities of Daily Living Provided to Adults Living at Home,” Health Services Research 37(2) (2002): 412.

987 PAS Center, “About the Center for Personal Assistance Services,” Accessed January 24, 2012.http://www.pascenter.org/about/index.php.

988 Id.

989 Barker and Maralami, Supra note 185, 6-8, 6-9.

990 Id.

991 Id.

992 Id.

993 Id. at 6-1.

994 Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services, State Medicaid Manual, CMS-45 Section 4480.

995 Barker and Maralami, Supra note 185, 6-2.

996 Id.

997 Id. at 6-2, 6-3.

998 Id.

999 Id.

1000 Id.

1001 Rabia S. Khedr, director of diversity work, Parenting with a Disability: Diversity, Barriers & Requirements. (Ontario, Canada: Study Funded by the Canadian Centre on Disability Studies, 2005).

1002 Mary Ocampo, Nurturing Assistance. (Toronto, Canada: Disability Network at the Centre for Independent Living in Toronto, 2001), www.cwhn.ca/en/node/39590.

1003 Id. at 19.

1004 Id., at 2.

1005 Swedish Code of Statutes, SFS 1993: 387.

1006 Iren Ahlund, FUB the Swedish Association for People with Learning Difficulties. E-mail correspondence, February 14–15, 2012.

1007 Id.

1008 Id.

1009 Jay Matthews, “Custody Battle: The Disabled Fight to Raise Their Children,” Washington Post, August 18, 1992, z10.

1010 Id.

1011 Pseudonym used to protect confidentiality. Instant message conversation, October 5, 2011.

1012 Pseudonym used to protect confidentiality. Telephone conversation, October 5, 2011.

1013 Pseudonym used to protect confidentiality. Telephone conversation, January 20, 2012.

1014 Pseudonym used to protect confidentiality. Telephone conversation, November 1, 2011.

1015 Pseudonym used to protect confidentiality. In-person conversation, January 20, 2012.

1016 Ora Prilletensky, Supra note 32, 38.

1017 Emily Cooper, Ann O’Hara, and Andrew Zovistoski, The Housing Crisis for People with Disabilities (Boston: Technical Assistance Collaborative, 2011), http://www.aucd.org/docs/policy/PricedOut2010.pdf.

1018 Id.

1019 U.S. Department of Housing and Urban Development, The 2008 Annual Homeless Assessment Report (Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Housing and Urban Development, Office of Community Planning and Development, 2009). (This does not include homeless children with disabilities in shelters or the estimated 282,000 people homeless each night living on the streets, in abandoned buildings, or elsewhere not intended for human habitation.)

1020 Barker and Maralami, Supra note 185, 8-1.

1021 Id.

1022 Id.

1023 Id.

1024 Id.

1025 Id.

1026 Id.

1027 Id.

1028 Id. at 8-3.

1029 Id. at 8-4.

1030 Id. at 8-5.

1031 Id. at 8-4.

1032 Id.

1033 Id.

1034 Id.

1035 “Survey of Americans with Disabilities,” Kessler Foundation and National Organization on Disability (2010),http://www.2010disabilitysurveys.org/pdfs/surveyresults.pdf.

1036 National Council on Disability, “The Current State of Transportation for People with Disabilities in the United States,” (June 13, 2005), http://www.ncd.gov/publications/2005/06132005.

1037 Barker and Maralami, Supra note 185, 5-1.

1038 Id.

1039 Id.

1040 Id. at 5-1, 5-2.

1041 Id. at 5-2.

1042 Id.

1043 Id.

1044 Id. at 5-3.

1045 Id.

1046 Id.

1047 Through the Looking Glass, Supra note 178.

1048 The Federal Transit Administration provides fee discretion to individual agencies pursuant to 49 C.F.R. § 37.131 (c).

1049 Federal Transit Administration, Letter of Finding Regarding Complaint #99096. Accessed December 16, 2011.http://www.fta.dot.gov.

1050 Federal Transit Administration generally. Accessed December 16, 2011. http://www.fta.dot.gov.

1051 U.S. Census Bureau, Current Population Survey (Washington, DC: U.S. Census Bureau).

1052 National Council on Disability, “National Disability Policy: A Progress Report,” (October 31, 2011),http://www.ncd.gov/progress_reports/Oct312011.

1053 Id.

1054 Stephen H. Kaye, “Unpublished Tabulations from the 2008 and 2009 American Community Survey.” Prepared for the National Center for Parents with Disabilities and their Families at Through the Looking Glass, 2011.

1055 Preston, Supra note 35.

1056 Id.

1057 Kaye, Supra note 1054.

1058 U.S. Department of Agriculture, Food and Nutrition Service, Office of Research and Analysis, Characteristics of Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program Households: Fiscal Year 2010, by Esa Eslami, Kai Filion, and Mark Strayer. Project Officer, Jenny Genser. Alexandria, VA: 2011.

1059 Mathematica Policy Research, Inc., “TANF Recipients Living with a Disability: Policy Framework, Prevalence and Service Strategies,” (July 16, 2009), http://www.mathematica-mpr.com/publications/pdfs/Family_Support/tanfrecipeints_Pavetti_0709.pdf.

1060 Id.

1061 Joanne Nicholson, Kathleen Biebel, Betsy Hinden, Alexis Henry, and Lawrence Stier. Critical Issues for Parents with Mental Illness and Their Families, (Rockville, MD: Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration, 2001), 30; Eileen P. Sweeney, “Recent Studies Indicate That Many Parents Who Are Current or Former Welfare Recipients Have Disabilities or Other Medical Conditions,” Center on Budget and Policy Priorities, February 2000, http://www.cbpp.org/2-29-00wel.htm.

1062 Id.

1063 Id.

1064 Id.

1065 Id.

1066 Preston, Supra note 35.

1067 Through the Looking Glass, “Visible, Diverse, and United: A Report of the Bay Area Parents with Disabilities and Deaf Parents Task Force,” October 30, 2006, http://www.lookingglass.org/announcements/67-news/100-report-task-force-on-bay-area-parents-with-disabilities-and-deaf-parents.

1068 Pseudonym used to protect confidentiality. Instant message conversation, October 5, 2011.

1069 Norma Love, “NH Joins Idaho in New Welfare Limits for Disabled,” Boston.com, February 19, 2012.

1070 Killoran, Supra note 827, 122.

1071 Pendo, Supra note 900, 43.

1072 Id.

1073 Id.

1074 Stein, Supra note, 20, 1079.

1075 Id.

1076 Law Students for Reproductive Justice, Supra note 19.

1077 Id.

1078 Id.

1079 Id.

1080 Pseudonym used to protect confidentiality. Instant message conversation, October 5, 2011.

1081 Pseudonym used to protect confidentiality. Telephone conversation, November 1, 2011.

1082 Pendo, Supra note 900, 46.

1083 Id.

1084 Margaret A. Nosek et al., National Study of Women with Physical Disabilities: Final Report (Houston, TX: Center for Research on Women with Disabilities, 1997).

1085 Law Students for Reproductive Justice, Supra note 19.

1086 Pseudonym used to protect confidentiality. In-person conversation, January 20, 2012.

1087 See generally, National Council on Disability, “The Current State of Health Care for People with Disabilities,” (September 30, 2009), http://www.ncd.gov/publications/2009/Sept302009.

1088 Sandra A. Welner, “Gynecologic Care and Sexuality Issues for Women with Disabilities,” Sexuality and Disability 15(1) (1997).

1089 H. Becker, A. Stuifbergen, and M. Tinkle, “Reproductive Health Care Experiences of Women with Physical Disabilities: A Qualitative Study,” Archives of Physical and Medical Rehabilitation 12 (5) (1997): S26–S30.

1090 J. Panko Reis, M. L. Breslin, L. I. Iezzoni, and K. Kirscher, It Takes More Than Ramps to Solve the Healthcare Crisis for People with Disabilities (Chicago: Rehabilitation Institute of Chicago, 2004).

1091 Pendo, Supra note 900, 22–23.

1092 Pseudonym used to protect confidentiality. Telephone conversation, October 12, 2011.

1093 Pseudonym used to protect confidentiality. Telephone conversation, October 11, 2011.

1094 Pseudonym used to protect confidentiality. Telephone conversation, October 12, 2011.

1095 Id.

1096 Ina Mae Gaskin, “Censorship of the True State of Maternal Health in the US,” in Censored 2012: The Top 25 Censored Stories of 2010–2011, in Mickey Huff et al. (Eds.) (New York: Seven Stories, 2011), 220.

1097 Judith Rogers, The Disabled Woman’s Guide to Pregnancy and Birth (New York: Demos, 2005).

1098 Id.

1099 Conversation with Judith Rogers, Berkeley, California, February 8, 2012.

1100 Id.

1101 Erin E. Andrews, “Pregnancy with a Physical Disability: One Psychologist’s Journey,” accessed December 13, 2011.http://www.apa.org/pi/disability/resources/publications/newsletter/2011/12/pregnancy-disability.aspx.

1102 “Global Library of Women’s Medicine, Gynecologic and Obstetric Issues Confronting Women with Disabilities,” accessed January 27, 2012, http://www.glowm.com/index.html?p=glowm.cml/section_view&articleid=76.

1103 Id.

1104 Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, “Preconception Care,” accessed January 27, 2012.http://www.cdc.gov/ncbddd/preconception/.

1105 Usha Ranji and Alina Salganicoff, State Medicaid Coverage of Family Planning Services: Summary of State Survey Findings, (Washington, DC: Kaiser Family Foundation, November 2009),http://www.kff.org/womenshealth/upload/8015.pdf.

1106 Id.

1107 Id.

1108 Pseudonym used to protect confidentiality. Telephone conversation, September 27, 2011.

1109 Andrews, Supra note 1103.

1110 Conley-Jung and Olkin, Supra note 290, 27.

1111 Id. at 24.

1112 IASSID, Supra note 964, 298.

1113 Preston, Supra note 35.

1114 Id.

1115 National Multiple Sclerosis Society, “Parenting with MS,” accessed January 27, 2012.http://www.nationalmssociety.org/living-with-multiple-sclerosis/relationships/parenting/index.aspx.

1116 Kathie Corbus and Sherrie Hansen, Training Module: Designing Support Groups for Parents with Intellectual Disabilities (Berkeley, CA.: Through the Looking Glass, 2007).

1117 Rogers, Supra note 1098.

1118 Presentation by Hanna Bjorg Sigursjonsdottir, Berkeley, California, October 30, 2011.

1119 Id.; written summary provided at presentation.

1120 “2010 Kessler Foundation/NOD Survey of Americans with Disabilities,” July 26, 2010,http://www.2010disabilitysurveys.org/indexold.html.

1121 Pseudonym used to protect confidentiality. Telephone conversation, October 3, 2011.

1122 Pseudonym used to protect confidentiality. Telephone conversation, September 27, 2011.

1123 Pseudonym used to protect confidentiality. In-person conversation, January 20, 2012.

1124 Stefan, Supra note 136, 168–169.

1125 Andrea Blanch, Joanne Nicholson, and James Purcell, “Parents with Severe Mental Illness and Their Children: The Need for Human Services Integration.” Journal of Behavioral Health Services and Research 21 (1994): 388–396.

1126 Jung Min Park, Phyllis Solomon, and David S. Mandell, “Involvement in the Child Welfare System Among Mothers with Serious Mental Illness,” Psychiatric Services 57 (2006): 493–497.

1127 Edie Mannion and Barbara Granger, “Helping Behavioral Health Clients with Parenting and Child Custody Issues” (2007), 2–3, http://www.upennrrtc.org.

1128 Id.

1129 Rosemary B. Hughes, Susan Robinson-Whelan, Nancy J. Petersen, and Margaret A. Nosek, “Characteristics of Depressed and Non-depressed Women with Physical Disabilities,” Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation 80 (2005): 473–479.

1130 President’s Committee for People with Intellectual Disabilities, accessed February 8, 2012.

1131 Stephen Kaye, unpublished tabulations from the 2008 and 2009 American Community Survey, prepared for the National Center for Parents with Disabilities and Their Families at Through the Looking Glass, 2011.

1132 42 U.S.C. 15001, et seq.

1133 Id. at §201, et seq.

1134 Association of Regional Center Agencies, accessed February 9, 2012, http://www.arcanet.org.

1135 East Bay Regional Center, accessed February 9, 2012. http://www.rceb.org/about/services.html.

1136 San Diego Regional Center, accessed February 9, 2012.

1137 Conversation with Sherrie Hansen, Berkeley, California. February 10, 2012.

1138 The Arc, “Parents with Intellectual Disabilities,” accessed April 30, 2012, http://www.thearc.org/page.aspx?pid=3195.

1139 David McConnell, Gwynnyth Llewellyn, and Rosalind Bye, “Providing Services to Parents with Intellectual Disability: Parent Needs and Service Constraints,” Journal of Intellectual and Developmental Disability 22(1) (1997): 5–17.

1140 National Council on Independent Living, “Centers for Independent Living,” accessed January 27, 2012.

1141 Id.

1142 E-mail correspondence with Deborah Kent Stein, chair of NFB Blind Parent Committee, February 14, 2012.

1143 Id.

1144 Nicholson et al., Supra note 1061, 35.

1145 Id.

1146 Id.

1147 Id.

1148 Id.

1149 Yash Bhagwanji, Relationships with Parents with Disabilities: Perceptions and Training Needs of Head Start Staff(1997), 3, http://www.eric.ed.gov/PDFS/ED433152.pdf.

1150 Nicholson et al., Supra note 1061, 35.

1151 Bhagwanji, Supra note 1149, 3.

1152 Id. at 2.

1153 Id. at 3.

1154 Id. at 14.

1155 Id. at 5.

1156 Id. at 6.

1157 Id.

1158 Early Childhood Learning and Knowledge Center, accessed February 16, 2012, http://www.eclkc.ohs.acf.hhs.gov.

1159 Id.

1160 Id. at 3–4.

1161 Pseudonym used to protect confidentiality. Telephone conversation, September 27, 2011.

1162 Linda Toms Barker, Debra Solomon, and Michael Anderson, “Access to Head Start for Families with Disabled Parents” (1998), accessed December 2, 2011,http://www.berkeleypolicyassociates.com/images/berkeleypolicyassociates.com/Image/photo/20030608_223829/488-2_Headstart_Report.pdf.

1163 Id.

1164 Nicholson et al., Supra note 1061, 36.

1165 Gary P. Gross, “The Protection and Advocacy System and Collaboration with Legal Services Programs,”Management Information Exchange Journal (Summer 2001), http://www.heart-intl.net/HEART/Legal/Comp/Theprotection&adsystem.htm.

1166 Gary P. Gross, “Protection and Advocacy System Standing – To Vindicate the Rights of Persons with Disabilities,”Mental and Physical Disability Law Reporter 22(5) (1998).

1167 Id.

1168 Id.

1169 Disability Rights North Carolina, “What is a P&A?” accessed January 27, 2012.

1170 Cal. Fam. Code § 3049 (West 2011); id. at §§ 14132, 14059 (West 2011)

1171 National Disability Rights Network, accessed February 12, 2012, http://www.ndrn.org.

1172 Ella Callow and Jean Jacob, The Perspectives and Demographics of Parents Contacting Through the Looking Glass’ Legal Program Regarding Custody Issues, unpublished tabulations from the 2008–2011 study, data on file with Through the Looking Glass.

1173 Id.

1174 See New York State Commission on Quality of Care and Advocacy for Persons with Disabilities, “Protection and Advocacy for Individual Rights (PAIR),” accessed January 27, 2012, http://cqc.ny.gov/advocacy/protection-advocacy-programs/pair; Disability Rights Vermont, “Protection and Advocacy for Individual Rights (PAIR),” accessed January 27, 2012, http://www.disabilityrightsvt.org/Programs/pair.html; Disability Rights Idaho, “Priorities and Objectives,” accessed January 27, 2012, http://www.disabilityrightsidaho.org/services/priorities-objectives.aspx.

1175 Bazelon Center for Mental Health Law, Supra note 353.

 

1176 Kirshbaum and Olkin, Supra note 34, 68–69.

1177 Id.

1178 Id.

1179 Id. at 71.

1180 Callow, Buckland, and Jones, Supra note 98.

1181 Id. at 1.

1182 Id.

1183 Preston, Supra note 35.

1184 Correspondence with Hanna Björg Sigurjónsdóttir, February 3, 2012.

1185 Thresholds, “Family and Youth Services,” Accessed November 18, 2011. http://www.thresholds.org/find-services/family-and-youth.

1186 Id.

1187 Telephone conversation with Marc Fagan, associate director, Child and Adolescent Services, March 6, 2012.

1188 Id.

1189 Id.

1190 Id.

1191 Thresholds, “Family and Youth Services.”

1192 Id.

1193 Telephone conversation with Marc Fagan.

1194 Id.

1195 National Mental Health Association, “The Invisible Children’s Project: An Example of a Promising Program,” accessed November 16, 2011. http://www.nmha.org/download.cfm?DownloadFile=A04B8B61-1372-4D20-C8935738A28E9262.

1196 Id.

1197 Id.

1198 Id.

1199 Id.

1200 Id.

1201 Id.

1202 Id.

1203 Employment Options, “Family Initiatives,” accessed December 1, 2011.http://www.employmentoptions.org/family_initiatives.htm.

1204 Employment Options, “Family Project,” accessed January 23, 2012.http://www.employmentoptions.org/family_project.htm.

1205 Id.

1206 Id.

1207 Marsh, Supra note 266, 32.

1208 Id.

1209 Betsy Hinden and Chip Wilder, “Family Options: Supporting Parents with Mental Illness and their Children,” Focal Point. (2008): 7–9.

1210 Id.

1211 Employment Options, “Family Initiatives.”

1212 Employment Options, “Clubhouse Family Legal Support Project,” accessed January 23, 2012.http://www.employmentoptions.org/family_legal.htm.

1213 Mari Lubin, “The Clubhouse Family Legal Support Project,” (2007) accessed December 1, 2011.http://www.employmentoptions.org/documents/MariLubinResearchProjectPaper5-07_000.pdf.

1214 Id.

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1219 The Arc United, “Positive Parenting Resource Center,” accessed January 23, 2012.http://www.unitedarc.org/positiveparenting.html.

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1222 http://www.progressfoundation.org.html, accessed February 11, 2012.

1223 Id.