Chapter 6. USAID Sector-Specific Review

Introduction

In the Quadrennial Diplomacy and Development Review, the Obama administration undertook to “rebuild USAID into the world’s premier development agency.”[1] As discussed in Chapter 5, USAID was one of the first development donors to adopt a policy addressing disability inclusion in foreign assistance programs. In order to keep pace with other donor efforts to advance disability inclusion in development,[2] prompted by domestic as well as international legal developments, USAID needs to redouble its efforts to ensure, pursuant to the QDDR, that disability is fully integrated into the policies and programs of USAID.[3]

The U.S. Government currently prioritizes its development efforts in the following six areas:

  1. Food security
  2. Global health
  3. Global climate change
  4. Sustainable economic growth
  5. Democracy and governance
  6. Humanitarian assistance.[4]

This chapter focuses on USAID’s disability inclusion in three of those sectors: humanitarian assistance, economic development, and democracy and governance. The purpose of this chapter is to provide a more in-depth analysis combined with salient examples of whether and how disability inclusion occurs in U.S. Government-funded development work. The following sections analyze USAID’s disability inclusion within those specific sectors based upon a desk review of key publications, a sampling of USAID-issued solicitations, and key informant interviews with USAID personnel and implementing partners.[5] The chapter’s scope is limited to a review of USAID programs in three sectors, but many of the findings and recommendations set forth are applicable to DOS and other U.S. Government agencies operating overseas. Additionally, many of the findings and recommendations are relevant to other sectors of international development.

Disaster Relief: Making Humanitarian Preparedness and Response Accessible

The Office of U.S. Foreign Disaster Assistance (OFDA) within USAID facilitates emergency assistance efforts overseas.[6] OFDA’s mission is to support humanitarian assistance programs to save lives, relieve human suffering, and diminish the social and economic impact of humanitarian emergencies worldwide.[7] OFDA responds to natural disasters and also provides assistance when lives or livelihoods are threatened by armed conflict, acts of terrorism, or industrial accidents.[8] Additionally, OFDA funds activities to decrease the impact of recurrent natural disasters and supports training to build local capacity for disaster management and response.[9]

According to USAID, “[p]eople with disabilities are substantially more prone to being adversely affected by natural disasters, conflict, or other emergencies, yet they are continually excluded from disaster planning and response efforts.”[10] Armed conflict and natural disaster increase the number of people with disabilities by causing injury, impairment, and trauma.[11] Additionally, people with disabilities are disproportionately affected during disaster and armed conflict owing to inaccessible information dissemination, transportation procedures, and overall relief efforts.[12]

OFDA Technical Publications

Desk-based research reviewing USAID’s humanitarian assistance programs revealed a dearth of useful information on disability inclusion in USAID policies, guidance documents, and relevant publications directed at OFDA programming. Where people with disabilities are referenced at all, the tendency is to reference their generalized vulnerability without providing any guidance on strategies for ensuring their protection in situations of risk. In this vein, USAID/OFDA’s Guidelines for Unsolicited Proposals and Reporting includes a short section on disability, stating that “[p]eople with disabilities may become disproportionately vulnerable during times of disaster, due to the disruption of infrastructure, services, and familiar routines.”[13] While the publication does acknowledge that proposed interventions should include people with disabilities to the extent possible, it provides no concrete examples or guidelines as to how inclusion can be facilitated, nor does it reference materials that could provide such guidance.[14] Similarly, the Field Operations Guide (FOG) for Disaster Assessment and Response, a key reference for field workers undertaking initial assessments and for members of OFDA Disaster Assistance Response Teams (DART), lacks any guidance on disability inclusion.[15] The FOG makes passing reference to disability but fails to provide meaningful instruction for including people with disabilities in assessments. While people with disabilities are identified as a “vulnerable population” that must be targeted for support after a disaster, the FOG does not address how to identify people with disabilities or otherwise point to inclusive strategies. Other technical documents intended to provide guidance in this context similarly fail to provide meaningful direction on disability inclusion.

Likewise, budgeting tools used in the humanitarian assistance context miss opportunities to provide meaningful direction on the implications of disability inclusion and the USAID Disability Policy. The Sample Detailed Budget for Primary Funding Recipients, for example, includes a long illustrative list of line items, but does not include a line item for reasonable accommodations for people with disabilities to participate and benefit from programs.[16] In addition to ensuring that technical publications provide relevant guidance on disability inclusion, budgeting references and models should likewise include such references, thereby cuing implementers to the need to account for disability inclusion in costing proposals.

While the focus on disability inclusion in humanitarian assistance in this report is limited to addressing USAID/OFDA, there are indicators of progress in other contexts. InterAction, the umbrella coalition organization of humanitarian assistance organizations, has adopted a section, “Promoting People with Disabilities,” into its private voluntary organization (PVO) standards.[17] The standards call for member organizations to establish an internal mechanism to promote and monitor disability inclusion in humanitarian assistance programs[18] and require disability inclusion strategies to be integrated into all programming stages.[19] The PVO standards also state that programs and activities should be held in accessible locations, training and conference materials should be provided in accessible alternate formats, and members should budget for reasonable accommodations for people with disabilities in programs and activities.[20] Notwithstanding these and other efforts to promote disability inclusion, it remains the responsibility of USAID and other U.S. Government agencies to advance disability inclusion in U.S.-funded programming, and these agencies should be setting the standard for nongovernmental humanitarian assistance contractors to follow, certainly not the other way around.

Humanitarian Assistance Sector Conclusion

The foregoing review exposed some significant gaps in disability inclusion within the framework of humanitarian assistance programming and missed opportunities to provide meaningful guidance on inclusion to implementing partners. A concerted effort should be made to ensure that technical publications and budget samples do provide disability-specific guidance on inclusion.

Economic Development: Ensuring the Inclusion of People with Disabilities

The central goals of USAID’s economic development programs are to assist developing countries in achieving rapid, sustained, and broad economic growth aimed at ensuring the well-being and livelihoods of their citizens over time.[21] USAID’s economic growth strategy, Securing the Future: A Strategy for Economic Growth,[22] guides these efforts and comprises three core program approaches: (1) developing well-functioning economies; (2) enhancing access to productive activities; and (3) strengthening the international framework of policies, institutions, and public goods. These core approaches are supported by USAID programming aiming to—

  • Improve the environment for enterprise growth and competitiveness;
  • Strengthen economic policy and governance;
  • Create sound, well-governed financial systems;
  • Support business-enabling environments;
  • Support microfinance programs and business services for micro and small enterprises; and
  • Build trade capacity.[23]

The stated aims of USAID’s economic development programming have clear implications for the inclusion of people with disabilities. The International Labor Organization estimates that 386 million of the world’s working-age people have disabilities, and unemployment of people with disabilities is as high as 80 percent in some countries.[24] People with disabilities in developing countries make up a disproportionately high level of the world’s population living in poverty; thus it is essential that economic development programs be inclusive of people with disabilities. Ensuring disability inclusion and accessibility in USAID’s economic development programs is accordingly an important aspect of any successful poverty eradication program. Absent disability inclusion in all subsectors of economic development programming—whether micro-level interventions aimed at income generation or macro-level interventions designed to create economic development-friendly legal and regulatory frameworks—people with disabilities will not be able to fully participate in society. The next section reviews USAID’s economic development programming within the context of the USAID Disability Policy.

Economic Development Technical Guidance

Of 20 core technical publications published by USAID concerning economic development, including both technical briefs and publications of USAID’s chief economic advisor, none addressed disability inclusion.[25] Even in publications where the disproportionate impact of poverty and joblessness on women was repeatedly referenced and highlighted, no mention was made of people with disabilities and their unique vulnerability, even in the 2009 publication, A Guide to Economic Growth in Post-Conflict Countries.[26]

Economic Development Solicitations

This study reviewed numerous economic development solicitations and found that very few solicitations included people with disabilities at all or in any meaningful way. The RFPs reviewed did include the USAID Disability Policy, but failed to list people with disabilities in the statement of work. Further, twelve economic development RFAs were reviewed, but five failed to include the USAID Disability Policy. This is a major issue, as it points to the fact that some Acquisition Officers remain unaware of the policy and fail to include it in RFAs altogether, some seven years after the adoption of the USAID Disability Policy. In RFAs where the policy is included, there were very few that meaningfully mentioned people with disabilities in the program description section. Further, out of six economic development RFPs, only two contained additional information related to people with disabilities in the statement of work.

Examples from USAID Programming

The following examples of USAID economic development programs in countries where interviews were undertaken provide a useful lens through which to review and conceptualize the various types of programs being implemented, as well as whether and how USAID economic development programs are accessible to and inclusive of people with disabilities. The review combines the in-country interview responses that mentioned economic development programs with the desk-based research into economic development programs in the 20 countries included in this study.

In Armenia, the USAID mission supports labor market interventions aimed at providing support to Armenia’s jobless population, and the program specifically includes people with disabilities as one of the targeted beneficiary groups.[27] According to Program Officers at the mission, there has been a recent push to include people with disabilities in all programs, and the officers emphasized the importance of including people with disabilities in job-skills workshops.[28]  

USAID’s “Assistance to Persons with Disabilities” program in Ecuador”[29] supports job placement services and information technology training for people with disabilities to improve their labor profiles.[30] The main objectives of the program are (a) to promote the participation and equalization of opportunities of people with disabilities; (b) to increase awareness of issues of people with disabilities; (c) to engage other U.S. Government agencies, host country governments, implementing organizations, and other donors in fostering a climate of nondiscrimination against people with disabilities; and (d) to support international advocacy for people with disabilities.[31] In 2007, the program trained approximately 1,000 people with disabilities, and 860 found permanent jobs.[32] While this is an example of targeted economic development programming for people with disabilities that has achieved measurable results, the investment for the entire project from 2006 to 2009 was only $766,000.[33] General economic development programming that receives more funding and staff that is accessible to people with disabilities has the potential to benefit even more people with disabilities.

In Egypt, the USAID mission funds a disability-inclusive microfinance program. The mission partners with a microfinance institution that provides loans to people with disabilities and trains them on financial management. There have been more than 3,500 program beneficiaries.

In contrast to the inclusive programs referenced above, USAID Serbia supported a microfinance program, but it did not include people with disabilities. According to an officer at the mission, “we had a microfinance program and handicapped people were not prevented from applying for a loan, for example.” This response points to a major misconception in international development programs—the absence of an express prohibition on the participation of people with disabilities does not mean that the program is actually accessible to or inclusive of people with disabilities. The central idea around American federal disability law, and the international standards that have emerged from it, is that disability inclusion requires reasonable accommodation and modification.

Economic Development Sector Conclusion

In reviewing the USAID economic development sector, it is evident that USAID has the capacity and existing framework to create inclusive economic development programming. Deepening efforts at inclusion in this context, including through the provision of technical guidance and more meaningful attempts at highlighting the disability dimension in relevant solicitations, will help narrow equity gaps and eliminate worldwide poverty, advance the goals of USAID’s Disability Policy while complying with American disability rights laws, advance the principles of the CRPD, and further prove that the United States is a leader in the inclusive development field.

Democracy and Governance: Achieving the Full Participation of People with Disabilities and Their Representative Organizations in Politics and Public Life

The central goals of USAID’s democracy and governance programming include the equal application of the law, transparent and accountable government systems, impartial electoral frameworks, and citizen participation.[34] USAID organizes its democracy and governance work around four core pillars: (1) Rule of Law; (2) Governance; (3) Elections and Political Processes; and (4) Civil Society programming. These programming pillars are essential advocacy entry points for groups subject to discrimination in their societies generally, and for people with disabilities in particular. The fundamental aim of the USAID Disability Policy as applied to these spheres of work is for people with disabilities to be fully included as beneficiaries in any democracy and governance strategy. The following sub-sections review disability inclusion in the four core pillars of USAID democracy and governance programming. Research conducted as part of this sector analysis consisted of a review of democracy and governance solicitations, desk-based research reviewing USAID’s Center for Democracy and Governance technical publication series launched in 1998, in-country interviews, and focus-group discussions.

Rule of Law

In the interest of promoting and expanding order and security—essential prerequisites to the Rule of Law—USAID prioritizes the establishment and expansion of justice institutions to ensure the maintenance of public order.[35] Laws must be legitimized in the eyes of the citizenry in order to be successful and lasting. USAID emphasizes the importance of citizen inclusion in legal reform processes, the harmonization of customary law with existing or proposed state-based law, the formation of justice mechanisms to address past abuses, and systems of checks and balances to prevent future abuses.[36] USAID seeks to strengthen rule of law by promoting equal application of the law, protection of human rights and civil liberties, and access to justice for all citizens—especially the poor, people with disabilities, and women.[37]

National disability legal frameworks remain underdeveloped throughout the world, notwithstanding rapid ratification of the CRPD in more than 100 countries. In many countries, domestic law contains blatant discriminatory provisions that seriously undermine access to justice and full participation in society for people with disabilities. The provisions that discriminate against people with disabilities include arbitrary exclusions in electoral codes, sweeping plenary guardianship laws with no due-process protections, discriminatory banking practices, and inaccessible court proceedings. These discriminatory provisions represent a small fraction of the standard practices that USAID should address in general Rule of Law programs. To this end, it is important for Rule of Law programs to include disability-specific technical assistance to promote development of domestic disability laws and policies. Currently, disability-specific guidance is conspicuously absent from technical publications, statements of work, and, consequently, from Rule of Law programming implemented in developing countries.

Governance Programming

Through its governance programming, USAID aims to develop the effectiveness and accountability of government institutions through increasing transparency and universal public participation.[38] By providing technical expertise and leadership—learned and honed through research, trainings, and best practices developed in the field—USAID actively supports country-level governance development programs. USAID prioritizes programs that endeavor to address anticorruption, accountable security-sector systems, the decentralizing and localizing of governance activities, improvements to legislative procedures and processes, democratizing executive branch offices, and the inclusion of democratic structures and precepts into state building.[39]

The inclusion of people with disabilities in governance programming is a necessary precondition to the greater participation of people with disabilities in government. Additionally, the removal of actual or perceived barriers blocking people with disabilities from freely participating in or benefiting from governance programming actualizes USAID’s governance-programming mission: “the mere act of governing is not democratic unless the institution and individuals charged with governance…are accessible to everyone.”[40]

Elections and Political Processes Programming

USAID election programming assists governments in developing consensus-building practices that promote more inclusive and participatory political processes; election processes that democratically and accurately reflect the will of the people; oversight mechanisms to stifle corruption and ensure that election management bodies operate independently; and multiple political parties that aggregate the interests of different constituencies and ensure that elections are truly contested.[41] Democracy requires free and fair elections occur on a consistent basis and be accessible to all citizens.

People with disabilities have faced many barriers to participation in election programming throughout the world. These programming barriers undermine USAID’s strategic focus to promote free and fair elections. Current USAID technical publications on elections and political processes make no mention of people with disabilities. Where programming references people with disabilities as potential beneficiaries, generally no solutions are offered to address the inaccessibility of elections. USAID needs to provide guidance on how to include people with disabilities as beneficiaries of and participants in elections programming so that mission officers are aware of how to design programming that includes and is accessible to the participation and benefit of people with disabilities.

Civil Society Programming

USAID seeks to strengthen the ways in which citizens are freely and openly able to organize and communicate with one another and their government, protections of tolerance and respect for human rights, and the citizenry’s capacity to mobilize reform and civic action efforts.[42] Civil society activities help inform public opinion, mobilize voting blocs, and challenge politicians and political parties through policy debate. Often in postconflict countries, civil society organizations lead reconciliation and reconstruction efforts, assisting USAID programming by conducting and commissioning research to improve programs; performing assessments of government programs; managing NGO cooperative agreements; and providing localized and unique technical expertise.[43] The full participation of people with disabilities in civil society is a marker of an open and free society.

Democracy and Governance Technical Guidance in Featured Publications

A review of key democracy and governance publications from the USAID Center for Democracy and Governance and successor publications, intended to provide best practices, lessons learned, and guidelines for practitioner consideration, revealed scant attention to disability inclusion. Further, there were numerous missed opportunities to provide salient guidance to democracy and governance practitioners, even in publications with a “marginalized” population focus or theme. The inclusion of people with disabilities in democracy and governance programming is an essential first step toward the full realization of the rights of people with disabilities; however, USAID program officers and mission staff cannot be expected to understand how best to incorporate people with disabilities into their programming without specific guidance. People with disabilities and disability inclusion are not addressed in the wide range of core democracy and governance publications, whether in Rule of Law,[44] governance (anticorruption,[45] decentralization, policy implementation[46]), elections and political processes,[47] or civil society.[48]

The provision of appropriate guidance on how to include people with disabilities as beneficiaries of and participants in all aspects of democracy and governance programming is essential so that mission officers are able to design, implement, and oversee concrete programming that is inclusive of and accessible to people with disabilities.

Democracy and Governance Solicitations

The review considered the meaningful inclusion of people with disabilities in solicitations and their statements of work to assess, for example, whether people with disabilities were referenced as a vulnerable population or potential beneficiaries in relevant program descriptions. While many failed to include people with disabilities or otherwise reference disability inclusion, there are examples of solicitations that did mention people with disabilities. For example, the recently issued International Rule of Law Technical Assistance Services RFP listed people with disabilities as program participants in the statement of work and in subsections on the equal application of the law and access to justice.[49]

A recently released RFA from USAID Liberia includes people with disabilities in the program description: “Progress in the Rule of Law sector will continue to be impeded without tangible and large scale efforts to incorporate marginalized groups, including the poor, women, disabled, youth, and those living in rural areas of the country.”[50] It also recognizes that “[m]arginalized groups such as the poor and disabled often lack access to the instruments of governance” and that legal literacy outreach programs can provide basic access to justice training and peaceful avenues for recourse.[51] Although the program description meaningfully mentions people with disabilities as beneficiaries, it is noteworthy that this RFA does not include the Disability Policy.[52] USAID Indonesia included people with disabilities in a recently issued Annual Program Statement, noting that “to the extent it can accomplish this goal within the scope of the program objectives; the Recipient should demonstrate a comprehensive and consistent approach for including men, women and children with disabilities.”[53]

Democracy and Governance Program Examples

Democracy and governance program examples were elicited from in-country interviews with USAID program officers. The in-country interview questions specifically addressed the four pillars of democracy and governance to determine the level of inclusion and accessibility across the various subsectors:

  • The USAID mission in Egypt funds a grant program that is establishing a complaints office to train lawyers on how to draft and file legal complaints. Notably, the grant has been used to train lawyers on the legal rights of people with disabilities, “with a special focus on women.”
  • USAID Serbia has Rule of Law programming that focuses on judicial reform and the capacity of courts to act independently and transparently. The USAID officer interviewed stated there was no disability-related component in this program and that no trainings included discussion of people with disabilities in the court system.
  • USAID Russia worked with Perspektiva, a local disability organization, and its regional partners to develop and implement a training course on advocating the rights of people with disabilities for law students in five Russian universities.
  • USAID Vietnam has been proactively including disability components in Rule of Law programs. As part of its disability program, the mission worked with the Vietnam National Assembly to enact the National Disability Law, Vietnam’s first comprehensive law for people with disabilities.[54] The mission also worked with various government ministries to address and develop barrier-free codes and standards for public construction and transportation and included training for government officials on the rights of people with disabilities.[55]
  • Prior to the last national election in Bangladesh, USAID provided training to DPOs to ensure that polling stations were accessible to people with disabilities and also to inform people with disabilities about their right to cast their vote in secret.[56]
  • USAID Serbia has funded election programs, but people with disabilities were not included. According to a Program Officer, “the emphasis was more on professionalizing party systems and strengthening their platforms. In regards to specific groups, we worked on creation of a coalition of ethnic minorities, but persons with disabilities were not included.”
  • USAID Serbia is in the final year of the Civil Society Advocacy Initiative , a five-year, $18 million program that includes various disability components. Although this program includes people with disabilities, neither the mission nor the prime implementing partner could provide information about how many people with disabilities participated in program activities. The mission and the prime contractor, the Institute for Sustainable Communities, pointed to the fact that no “disability indicators” were included in the program’s monitoring and evaluation plan. This points to the lack of monitoring and evaluation efforts that track people with disabilities discussed in Chapter 5. Large-scale civil society programs must develop indicators in order to monitor and evaluate disability inclusion.
  • USAID Indonesia has been proactively including people with disabilities in election programs. Prior to the 2009 general election, the mission worked with the International Foundation for Electoral Systems and the Center for Citizens with Disabilities Access to Election, an Indonesian DPO that focuses on election access for people with disabilities. In this program, USAID supported the development of a voting template for people who are blind or low vision. The template allowed people who are blind or low vision the ability to vote independently at polling stations for the first time in Indonesia and represented a first step toward ensuring the right of all people with disabilities in Indonesia to vote in secret. Additionally, an advocacy toolkit for people with disabilities was developed in consultation with international disability experts, election experts, and DPOs. These activities were part of a much larger election project with a total budget of $3 million.
  • Notably, in 2006, USAID funded a two-year project implemented by Disability Rights International, the Initiative for Inclusion of Citizens with Mental Disabilities and their Families in Kosovo, which helped to support one of the most innovative and effective self-advocacy efforts for people with intellectual disabilities and serves as a useful example for future programming. The self-advocacy organization that was established during the project, Ne per Ne (We for Ourselves), has—
    • Conducted workshops and panel discussions aimed at policymakers and the public on the rights afforded to all people under the CRPD.
    • Opened the doors of Shtime Institution and taken people out to the Ne per Ne meetings and events—people who have spent decades segregated from society and locked behind the doors of the institution.
    • Challenged discrimination. After being denied official identification cards in the former Yugoslavia, members of the self-advocacy groups were among the first citizens of Kosovo to receive the new ID cards.
    • Held a candidate’s question-and-answer forum during the political campaign season during Kosovo’s first election as an independent state, allowing persons with intellectual disabilities to vote for the first time.
    • Published Success Stories, a book of personal narratives describing the experience of disability in Kosovo and how lives have been transformed through self-advocacy. The book is now part of the curriculum of middle and high schools throughout Kosovo.
    • Established an internship program with the University of Prishtina that introduces for all psychology students a required internship placement with the self-advocacy group.
    • Lectured at schools and the university and conducted television and newspaper interviews as part of their advocacy effort for inclusive education and to break down barriers and reduce the stigma and discrimination against people with intellectual disabilities.

Democracy and Governance Sector Conclusion

The foregoing review reveals some good examples of inclusive programming in the democracy and governance sector but also reveals numerous missed opportunities to provide important guidance on disability inclusion, even in areas where USAID has considerable good practice, as in election access. USAID’s Democracy and Governance Technical Publication Series, an excellent resource for democracy and governance practitioners, has not been used to forward the USAID Disability Policy, either through disability-specific publications or through disability inclusion in key publications. Moreover, USAID solicitations routinely fail to capture even the most rudimentary opportunities to advance disability inclusion in statements of work, often missing people with disabilities as specifically identified beneficiaries in programs targeting the most vulnerable groups in society. Achieving the aims of the QDDR to ensure full inclusion in USAID democracy and governance programming will therefore require changes that provide democracy and governance practitioners, whether USAID personnel or its implementing partners, with disability-specific best practices, lessons learned and guidelines, and a more nuanced approach to inclusion in statements of work and solicitations generally.

Footnotes

[1] QDDR, supra note 14, at 76.

[2] See Lord, supra note 10.

[3] QDDR, supra note 14, at 90.

[4] See 2010 Presidential Policy Directive on Development (PPD).

[5] While the parameters of this review are limited, disability inclusion is highly relevant across all sectors of international development.

[7] Id.

[8] Id.

[9] Id.

[10] USAID, General Information on Disability and Development (2007), http://www.usaid.gov/our_work/cross-cutting_programs/wid/pubs/Disability Information_Sept2007_1.pdf.

[11] Id.

[12] Id.

[13] USAID/OFDA, Guidelines for Unsolicited Proposals and Reporting (October 2008), http://www.usaid.gov/our_work/humanitarian_assistance/disaster_assistance/resources/pdf/updated_guidelines_unsolicited_proposals_reporting.pdf

These OFDA guidelines are intended to assist organizations in the preparation of proposals for new awards and award modifications and their submission to OFDA.

[14] The guidelines do note that “[b]eneficiaries can include those who had disabilities prior to, as well as resulting from, the disaster” and that “[d]isability activities can also include specific care, such as rehabilitation services or psychosocial support, for people with temporary or long-term disabilities caused by the disaster,” yet this provides little in the way of information to foster meaningful implementation. Id.

[15] USAID, Field Operations Guide (FOG) for Disaster Assessment and Response, Version 4.0 (September 2005), http://www.usaid.gov/our_work/humanitarian_ assistance/disaster_assistance/resources/pdf/fog_v4.pdf.

[16] USAID, Sample Detailed Budget for Primary Funding Recipients, http://www.usaid.gov/our_work/humanitarian_assistance/disaster_assistance/resources/.

[17] Private Voluntary Organization (PVO) InterAction Standards, revised January 6,

[17] 11, 7.4

[18] Id. at 7.4.1.

[19] The standards also call on members to consult with local partner organizations “in the field.” Id. at 7.4.2

[20] Id. at 7.4.3

[22] USAID, Securing the Future: A Strategy for Economic Growth 6 (2008), http://www.usaid.gov/our_work/economic_growth_and_trade/eg/eg_strategy/ eg_strategy_v4_final.pdf.

[23] Note that other USAID strategies likewise are directed at promoting economic growth, including agricultural development; infrastructure improvement such as the upgrading of energy, telecommunications, and water and sanitation services; workforce development; education; and health.

[24] USAID, Economic Growth and Trade (2009), http://www.usaid.gov/our_work/ economic_growth_and_trade/.

[25] The 20 technical publications were selected from USAID’s website on economic growth and trade.

[26] USAID, A Guide to Economic Growth in Post-Conflict Countries (January 2009), http://pdf.usaid.gov/pdf_docs/PNADO408.pdf.

[27] USAID Armenia, Country Profile, http://armenia.usaid.gov/en/node/37.

[28] USAID interview, Armenia, supra note 231.

[29] USAID Ecuador, Assistance to Persons with Disabilities, http://ecuador.usaid.gov/portal/content/view/207/175/.

[30] Id.

[31] Id.

[32] Id.

[33] Id.

[36] Id.

[37] Id.

[40] See USAID, Democracy and Governance: Technical Areas, http://www.usaid.gov/our_work/democracy_and_governance/technical_areas/.

[44] See, for example, USAID, Rebuilding the Rule of Law in Post-Conflict Environments; Guide to Rule of Law Country Analysis: The Rule of Law Strategic Framework; Reducing Corruption in the Judiciary; Guidance for Promoting Judicial Independence and Impartiality, Case Tracking and Management Guide; Achievements in Building and Maintaining the Rule of Law; Alternative Dispute Resolution Practitioners’ Guide; Weighing in on the Scales of Justice Independence and Impartiality; USAID Handbook on Legislative Strengthening; Understanding Representation: Legislative Strengthening; USAID Experience Strengthening Legislatures.

[45] See USAID, A Handbook on Fighting Corruption; Promoting Transparency and Accountability: USAID’s Anti-Corruption Experience; USAID Anti-Corruption Strategy.

[46] See USAID, Policy Implementation: What USAID Has Learned

[47] See USAID, Money in Politics Handbook: A Guide to Increasing Transparency in Emerging Democracies Managing Assistance in Support of Political and Electoral; Electoral Security Framework; Political Party Assistance Policy; Political Party Development Assistance.

[49] USAID, RFP International Rule of Law Technical Assistance Services, SOL-OAA-11-000011 (December 7, 2010). “Support to ensure that laws are applied equally to all persons and entities, including women, youth, people with disabilities, the poor and disadvantaged, and other vulnerable populations, and that impunity of privileged individuals is reduced.”

[50] USAID Liberia, RFA 669-11-001, Rule of Law.

[51] Id.

[52] Id.

[53] USAID Disability Policy, USAID Indonesia, APS-497-10-000001 “IKAT-US: Civil Societies Innovating Together.”

[54] USAID interview, Vietnam, supra note 236.

[55] USAID Interview, Vietnam, supra note 236.

[56] USAID interview, Bangladesh, supra note 212.

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