. Kaiser Commission on Medicaid and the Uninsured, “The Medicaid Program at a Glance,” Policy Brief (Washington, DC: Kaiser Family Foundation, September 2012).
. Families USA, “Cutting Medicaid: Harming Seniors and People with Disabilities Who Need Long-Term Care” (Washington, DC: Families USA Foundation, May 2011).
. Congressional Budget Office (CBO), An Update to the Budget and Economic Outlook: Fiscal Years 2012 to 2022 (Washington, DC: CBO, August 2012), http://www.cbo.gov/publication/42905.
. U.S. Treasury website, based on gross national debt as of January 31, 2001, and September 19, 2012 (http://www.treasurydirect.gov/NP/BPDLogin?application=np).
. CBO, The 2012 Long-Term Budget Outlook (Washington, DC: CBO, June 2012), http://www.cbo.gov/publication/43288.
. The Concord Coalition, “Structural Deficits: What Are They, Why Do We Have One, and Why Should We Worry About It,” Issue Brief (Arlington, VA: The Concord Coalition, February 27, 2012), http://www.concordcoalition.org/issue-briefs/2012/0227/structural-deficit-what-it-why-do-we-have-one-and-why-should-we-worry-about-i.
. Enrolled version of H.R. 8, the “American Taxpayer Relief Act of 2012,” U.S. Government Printing Office, January 1, 2013 (http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/BILLS-112hr8eas/pdf/BILLS-112hr8eas.pdf).
. U.S. Department of the Treasury, “Historical Debt Outlays,” http://www.treasurydirect.gov/govt/reports/pd/histdebt/histdebt.htm.
. U.S. Department of the Treasury, “Interest Expense on the Debt Outstanding,” http://www.treasurydirect.gov/govt/reports/ir/ir_expense.htm.
. Ginsberg, P. B., “High and Rising Health Care Costs: Demystifying U.S. Health Care Spending,” Research Synthesis Report No. 16 (Princeton, NJ: Robert Wood Johnson Foundation, October 2008).
. Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services, “Table 1: National Health Expenditures Aggregate, Per Capita Amounts, Percent Distribution and Average Annual Percent Change: Selected Calendar Years 1960–2010” (http://www.cms.gov/Research-Statistics-Data-and-Systems/Statistics-Trends-and-Reports/NationalHealthExpendData/Downloads/tables.pdf).
. “OECD Health Data: Health Expenditures and Financing,” Organization for Economic Co-operation (http://www.oecd-ilibrary.org/), data accessed by the Kaiser Family Foundation, August 23, 2012.
. CBO, The 2012 Long-Term Budget Outlook, p. 12.
. P.L. 146, The Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act, as amended by P.L. 111-152, the Health Care and Education Reconciliation Act of 2010 (P.L. 111-152), collectively referred to as the Affordable Care Act (ACA).
. Kaiser Family Foundation (KFF), “Health Care Costs: A Primer – Key Information on Health Care Costs and Their Impact,” (Washington, DC: KFF, May 2012), pp. 29–30 (http://www.kff.org/insurance/7670.cfm?source=QL).
. Kaiser Commission on Medicaid and the Uninsured, “The Medicaid Program at a Glance,” pp. 1–2.
. Peterson, G. E., and D. S. Nightingale, “What Do We Know About Block Grants?” (Washington, DC: Urban Institute, 1995).
. Sard, B., and W. Fischer, “Housing Block Grant Bills Would Jeopardize an Effective Program and Likely Lead to Cuts in Assistance for Low-Income Families” (Washington, DC: Center for Budget Policy and Priorities, 2003).
. Feingold, K., L. Wherry, and S. Schardin, “Block Grants: Historical Overview and Lessons Learned,” New Federalism Series A, No.A-63 (Washington, DC: Urban Institute, April 2004).
. U.S. General Accounting Office, Lessons Learned from Past Block Grants: Implications for Congressional Oversight, GAO/IPE-82-8 (Washington, DC: GAO, September 23, 1982).
. Feingold, Wherry, and Schardin, April 2004.
. Section 401(b) of the Personal Responsibility and Work Opportunity Reconciliation Act of 1996, 101 STAT. 2105, Government Printing Office.
. “Child Recipients of Welfare (AFDC/TANF): Indicators on Children and Youth,” Child Trends Data Bank, updated: July 2012 (http://www.childtrendsdatabank.org).
. U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Administration on Children and Families, Temporary Assistance to Needy Families (TANF): Ninth Annual Report to Congress, 2012, Table 12:7, pp. xii-109–xii-110.
. American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009 (P.L. 111-5).
. DeParle, J., “Welfare Limits Left Poor Adrift as Recession Hit,” New York Times (April 7, 2012).
. Like AFDC, social services aid to the states began as an open-ended entitlement authority. However, federal financial participation was capped in 1972, nine years before the Social Services Block Grant program was established.
. Website of the Budget Committee, U.S. House of Representatives (http://roadmap.republicans.budget.house.gov/plan/default.aspx).
. House Budget Committee, A Pathway to Prosperity: A Blueprint for America’s Renewal, FY 2013 Budget Resolution, U.S. House of Representatives, March 20, 2012 (http://budget.house.gov/uploadedfiles/pathtoprosperity2013.pdf).
. The Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act, P.L. 111-148, as amended by the P.L. 111-151.
. The enhanced federal aid that states received during FY 2009–FY 2011 as a result of the stimulus legislation would be excluded in calculating a state’s base allocation.
. Park, E., and M. Broaddus, “Ryan Medicaid Block Grant Proposal Would Cut Medicaid by One-Third by 2022 and More After That” (Washington, DC: Center on Budget and Policy Priorities, March 27, 2012).
. Election campaign officials have indicated that Presidential candidate Mitt Romney supports a Medicaid block grant that adjusts annual increases in state allocations based on GDP growth plus 1 percent. They indicate that the 10-year savings associated with the proposal would total $100 billion, compared to the $163 billion in savings associated with the House-passed FY 2013 budget resolution (H. Con. Res. 112).
. Holahan, M. Buettgens, C. Carroll, and V. Chen, “National and State-by-State Impact of the 2012 Republican Budget Plan for Medicaid,” Issue Paper (Washington, DC: Kaiser Commission on Medicaid and the Uninsured, October 2012).
. Holahan, J., M. Buettgens, V. Chen, C. Carroll, and E. Lawton, “House Republican Budget Plan: State-by-State Impact of Changes in Medicaid Financing,” Issue Paper (Washington, DC: Kaiser Commission on Medicaid and the Uninsured, May 2011).
. Holahan, M. Buettgens, C. Carroll, and V. Chen, October 2012.
. Ibid. pp. 8–12.
. Ibid, p. 16
. Ibid, p. 20.
. CBO, “Long-Term Analysis of Budget Proposals by Chairman Ryan,” April 5, 2011 (http://www.cbo.gov/publication/25159).
. See, for example, H.R. 5979, the “Medicaid Accountability and Care Act of 2012” (Rep. Bill Cassidy (R-LA).
. Park, E., and M. Broaddus, “Medicaid Per Capita Cap Would Shift Costs to States and Place Low-Income Beneficiaries at Risk,” Center on Budget and Policy Priorities (October 4, 2012), p.4.
. “The Medicaid Program at a Glance,” p. 3
. Park et al., “Medicaid Per Capita Cap …,” Ibid, pp. 5–6.
. Ibid, pp. 6–8.
. Ibid, pp. 8–10.
. Ibid, p.10.
. “The Medicaid Program at a Glance,” p. 1.
. Gettings, R. M., Forging a Federal-State Partnership: A History of Federal Developmental Disabilities Policy (Washington, DC, and Alexandria, VA: American Association on Intellectual and Developmental Disabilities and the National Association of State Directors of Developmental Disabilities Services, 2011), pp. 64–65.
. Feingold, Wherry, and Schardin, April 2004.
. Ibid, p. 2.
. Ibid, pp. 86–88.
. Ibid, pp. 88–92.
. Lambrew, J., “Making Medicaid a Block Grant: An Analysis of the Implications of Past Proposals,” The Milbank Quarterly, Vol. 83, No. 1 (2005), p. 6.
. Gettings, 2011, p. 108.
. Office of Management and Budget, Budget of the United States Government: FY 2004 (Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office, 2003), pp. 125–127.
. Kaiser Commission on Medicaid and the Uninsured, “Bush Administration: Medicaid/SCRIP Proposal,” Issue Paper. Washington, D.C.: Kaiser Family Foundation, May 2003.
. Office of Management and Budget, Budget of the United States Government: FY 2005 (Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office, 2004), p.149.
. Executive Order 13531, dated February 2, 2010 (http://www.fiscalcommission.gov/).
. National Commission on Fiscal Responsibility and Reform, The Moment of Truth, December 2010 (http://www.fiscalcommission.gov/news/moment-truth-report-national-commission-fiscal-responsibility-and-reform).
. Under revised assumptions adopted later, the sequestration would result in a 9.4 percent reduction in nondefense discretionary funding and an 8.2 percent reduction in nonexempt, nondefense discretionary funding. The sequester also would impose cuts of 2 percent cut in Medicare spending; 7.6 percent in other nonexempt, nondefense mandatory programs; and 10 percent in nonexempt, defense mandatory programs (OMB Report Pursuant to the Sequestration Transparency Act of 2012 (P.L. 112-155)).
. On September 14, 2012, the Office of Management and Budget issued a report providing a detailed, program-by-program breakdown of how to the spending reductions will be applied (OMB report, Ibid.).
. The Tax Relief, Unemployment Compensation Reauthorization and Job Creation Act of 2010 (P.L. 111-312).
. “Alternative Minimum Tax, Tax Guide to Investors,” Fairmont.com (http://www.fairmark.com/amt/amt101.htm).
. KFF, “FAQ: The ‘Doc Fix” (February 17, 2012) http://www.kaiserhealthnews.org/stories/2011/december/15/faq-doc-fix.aspx.
. CBO, “Economic Effects of Reducing the Fiscal Restraint That Is Scheduled to Occur in 2013” (May 22, 2012), http://www.cbo.gov/publication/43262.