Notice of Funding Opportunity: 2022 Progress Report

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Notice of Funding Opportunity

2022 Progress Report

Environmental Injustice and the Impact of the Increased Frequency of Extreme Weather Events on People with Disabilities

Background and Statement of Problem

In view of Executive Order 13990, “Protecting Public Health and the Environment and Restoring Science to Tackle the Climate Crisis”; and Executive Order 14030, “Climate-Related Financial Risk” directing federal agencies to take a whole-of-Government approach to increase resilience to the impacts of climate change and protect public health, NCD’s annual, statutorily mandated 2022 progress report will address the impacts of climate change and environmental injustice on the lives of people with disabilities.

Environmental injustice occurs when minority groups and/or people living in poverty are excluded from environmental decision-making or are disproportionately exposed to environmental hazards.[1] People with disabilities represent 15% of the world’s population and as the increased frequency of extreme weather events and other environmental issues increase, the disability community disproportionately absorbs the impact.[2] According to a 2020 United Nations report, people with disabilities are at increased risk of the adverse impacts of climate change, including threats to their health, food security, water, sanitation and, livelihoods.[3]

Sudden onset of natural disasters and slow onset events can seriously affect a person with a disability’s access to food and nutrition, safe drinking water, sanitation, healthcare services and medicines, education and training, adequate housing, and employment.[4]

In NCD’s soon to be released report Disparate Treatment of Puerto Rican Residents with Disabilities in Federal Programs, NCD reported on the mass migration of Puerto Rican residents to the states, with one of the main reasons of the migration being to escape the economic hardship on the island created by the multiple natural disasters over the last several decades. This migration has resulted in a shortage of medical doctors, educators, and professionals and an exacerbation of economic hardship given the resulting diminished tax base. Many people with disabilities, because of their economic status are unable to flee unfavorable conditions caused by such natural disasters.

Here in the United States, in February 2021, during winter storm Uri, which caused the blackout for over 9.9 million people in the United States and Mexico, and triggered a power crisis in Texas, 75% of Texans with disabilities were without electricity for at least 24 hours, 22% were without power for more than four days. Residents with disabilities experienced spoilage of life-saving medication and the inability to use breathing devices or mobility equipment that were power dependent.[5] There has been an increase in the frequency and intensity of extreme weather events, people with disabilities have had higher rates of illness, injuries, or death from these types of events than people without disabilities.[6] When an extreme weather event requires evacuation, people with disabilities have a high risk of being impacted both physically and mentally. The increased frequency of hurricanes, fires, and floods has a direct impact on people with disabilities who are power dependent. California, a state known for its rolling brownouts and power outages due to wildfires, continues to search for ways to mitigate the impact of power outages for people with disabilities who are power dependent.

Disability status in combination with race, ethnicity, and income is a determinant as to the amount of environmental harm one is exposed to.[7] People with disabilities, especially people of color are more likely to be impoverished, forcing them into low-income housing, which makes their residence more likely to be built near pollution sites.[8] Houston neighborhoods located near pollution sources such as Superfund sites and hazardous waste facilities were home to a significantly higher proportion of people with disabilities compared to the rest of the city. Race, ethnicity, and age amplified these inequalities.[9] Pollution and unsafe jobs and environmentally destructive industries not only affect health, but they also cause permanent disabilities.[10]

Environmental injustice is more prevalent in indigenous communities. Environmental injustice against Native Americans occurs, in part, because of social and economic injustice. In a study of the relationship between proximity to hazardous waste sites and occurrence of birth defects among 28,401 individuals born in California from 1983 to 1988, the strongest association between toxic exposure and congenital defects was found among Native American populations. The proximity to soil lead and lead dust pollution from mining waste poses a more significant health concern for American Indians than any other population. Environmental injustice also occurs in the planning stages of hazardous waste sites, which targeted Native American lands without any input from the population.[11]

According to the U.S. Census Bureau, 24% of American Indian and Alaska Natives have a disability compared to just 19% of the general population.

Native coastal communities in Alaska have been impacted by the rise in sea level. They had to abandon their community and relocate on higher ground after experiencing more extreme storm surges, flooding, and sea level rise, which has impacted cultural integrity and access to vital resources.[12]

Report Purpose

The Purpose of this report is to identify how the increased frequency of extreme weather events and environmental injustice impacts people with disabilities in the United States and in its territories. The report should identify the primary issues people with disabilities encounter because of the increased prevalence of natural disasters and environmental change. This report should also address how environmental injustice has a greater impact on people of color and indigenous tribes leading to an increased prevalence of disability in their community, further complicating these targeted population’s ability to mitigate the impact of increasing and extreme natural disasters. This report will address the impact of the increased frequency of extreme weather events on a person with a disability’s health and access to healthcare, community, housing, employment, and education. The report will also look at the higher prevalence of emergency evacuations, power outages, and their impact on people with disabilities.

The report will gather data and evidence to identify the specific issues people with disabilities encounter due to the impact of the increased frequency of extreme weather events and economic injustice. Specifically, the impact, on a person with a disability’s health, access to food, housing, water and sanitation, education, access to the community, and employment. This report will offer recommendations on how to mitigate the impact of the increased frequency of extreme weather events and environmental injustice on persons with disabilities. This report will discuss the intersectionality of disability and how the individual’s specific intersectionality impacts their ability to mitigate and access resources to mitigate the impact of environmental injustice or the increased frequency of extreme weather events.

 

Research Questions

Through the lens of disability right laws, the research will seek to answer:

  1. How has the increased frequency of extreme weather events and environmental injustice impacted the health and access to health care for people with disabilities?
  2. How has the increased frequency of extreme weather events and environmental injustice impacted persons with a disability access to their community?
  3. How has the increased frequency of extreme weather events and environmental injustice impacted housing options for people with disabilities?
  4. How has the increased frequency of extreme weather events and environmental injustice impacted or exacerbate job opportunities for people with disabilities?
  5. How has the increased frequency of extreme weather events and environmental injustice impacted access to food, fresh water, and sanitation for people with disabilities?
  6. What actions can be taken to mitigate the findings garnered from the research of this report?

Time Period

8 months

The deliverable for this project will include:

A detailed preliminary framing paper.

A revised framing paper incorporating input from NCD Council members and staff.

A first draft report incorporating initial findings, conclusions, and recommendations that can be drawn from the examination.

A final report of no more than 100 pages (not including endnotes or appendices) incorporating input from NCD Council members and staff. The final report must contain an executive summary with key findings and key recommendations; and specific sections on methodology; all findings; and all recommendations, organized according to the entity to which they are directed.

A brief “Report Highlights” document for each report to succinctly and in plain language encapsulates the report’s scope and purpose, major findings, and recommendations, and contains a link to the full report at the bottom. For an example of a Reports Highlights Page, refer to: https://ncd.gov/publications/2013/10242013

Requirements

Pursuant to Executive Order 14005, NCD will only consider proposals from individuals or entries based in the United States.

Any methodology used to obtain stakeholder input must allow for open-ended discussions between stakeholders, as opposed to soliciting answers to specific, predetermined questions. The inclusion of people with disabilities must be integral to the planning, development, and execution of this project. The report should also reflect NCD’s view that the disability community is heterogeneous, with diverse needs and perspectives, and these perspectives should be included.

The awardee is responsible for reasonable accommodations at any meetings, events, forums, focus groups, etc. (i.e., sign language interpreters, CART reporters, and other providers as well as documents or other materials that are made available in public forums), associated with this agreement. If NCD hosts any events related to this project, it will be responsible for providing accommodations.

The awardee will present the report before NCD at a quarterly Council meeting and must factor travel expenses into the proposed budget.

The report draft must adhere to NCD’s editorial requirements which will be provided upon award of the cooperative agreement. The final draft must be professionally edited before they are submitted to NCD.

Eligibility Information

All potential applicants are eligible to apply.

Cost-sharing is not required.

Other Eligible Criteria: proposals that merely offer to conduct a project in accordance with the requirements of the Government’s scope of work will not be eligible for award. You must submit an explanation of the proposed technical approach in conjunction with the tasks to be performed in achieving the project objectives.

The solicitation does not commit the government to contract for any work or services whatsoever. Respondents are advised that the federal government will not pay for any information or administrative costs incurred in response to this solicitation notice. All costs associated with responding to this solicitation notice will be solely at the responding party’s expense. It is the responsibility of the interested parties to monitor grants.gov and NCD.gov sites for additional information.

Number of Awards

NCD expects to make one award with an anticipated funding amount of $185,000.

Due Date and Email Address for Proposals

November 8, 2021, 5 PM eastern time.

Email Word and PDF versions of technical and business proposals to: anicholas@ncd.gov

Proposal Information and the Instructions

Proposals must be submitted in two parts: A “Technical Proposal” and a “Business Proposal”. Each part shall be separate and complete so that evaluation of one may be accomplished independently of the other. The technical proposal must not contain reference to cost; however, resource information, such as data on labor hours and categories, materials, subcontracts, etc., must be contained in the technical proposal so that the offeror’s understanding of the scope of the work may be evaluated. It must describe the offeror’s technical approach in sufficient detail to provide a clear and concise presentation that includes, but is not limited to, the requirements of the technical proposal instructions.

Proposals must be signed by an official authorized to bind the submitting organization/s.

Alternate proposals or proposals which deviate from the requirements may be submitted; if they address the requirements of the statement of work, and if overall performance would be improved or not compromised and are in the best interest of the Government. Alternate proposals, or deviations from any requirements of this funding opportunity, must be clearly identified.

NCD will evaluate proposals in accordance with the evaluation criteria set forth in this solicitation.

The winning proposal submitted in response to this solicitation will become part of the cooperative agreement.

A detailed work plan must be submitted indicating how each aspect of the statement of work is to be accomplished. The technical approach should contain as much detail as necessary to fully explain the proposed technical approach or method. The technical proposal must reflect a clear understanding of the nature of the work being undertaken.

The technical proposal must include information on how the project is to be organized, staffed, and managed. Information must demonstrate an understanding and describe the management of important events or tasks. The technical proposal must explain how the management and coordination of consultant and/or subcontractor efforts will be accomplished.

The technical proposal must include a list of names and proposed duties of the professional personnel, consultants, and key subcontractor employees assigned to the project. Their resumes must be included and should contain information on education, background, recent experience, and specific requirement related or technical accomplishments. The approximate percentage of time each individual will work on the project must be included. The proposed staff hours for each of the above individuals must be allocated against each task or subtask for the project.

The technical proposal must provide the general background, experience, and qualifications of the organization. Similar or related contracts, subcontracts, or grants should be included and contain the name of the customer, contract or grant number, dollar amount, time of performance, and the names and telephone numbers of the contracting officer’s representative or project officer and contracting/grants officer.

The technical proposal must contain a discussion of present or proposed facilities and equipment which will be used in the performance of the contract.

The technical proposal must contain a proposed timeline for deliverables and a “deliverables and payment schedule” chart. Payment will be based on three deliverables with the last payment occurring after NCD approval of the final draft of the report.

Format of Technical Proposals

1. Abstract (no more than 2 pages)

A two-page summary shall be provided abstracting the proposal contents (e.g., objectives, activities, expected outcomes) in language understandable to an informed layperson. The narrative should be limited to no more than 250 words.

2. Table of Contents

3. Introduction (no more than 20 pages)

Offerors shall summarize, in their own words, the purposes and objectives of the project to demonstrate their complete understanding of NCD’s intent and requirements. This section also should contain a specific statement of any interpretations, questions, qualifications, limitations, deviations, or exceptions to the scope of work and the extent to which the offeror’s proposal can be expected to meet the requirements set forth in the scope of work.

4. Procedural Plan (no more than 30 pages)

This section shall fully describe the theoretical and technical approaches the offeror will employ in complying with each task in the scope of work. While a general statement of strategy is appropriate, the offeror shall be specific in describing the way the overall review will be conducted, and the intended approach to the design.

Contain a proposed timeline and deliverables schedule that will be used to guide the conduct of the study and monitor the work.

5. Management Plan and Schedule (no more than 10 pages)

The management plan shall show the feasibility of implementing the offeror’s resources. The offeror shall present a time chart that specifies the amount of time (in-person days) each staff member will commit to implementing each task. The plan shall present a clear description of the working relationships among personnel. Finally, the plan shall contain a method for ensuring the timely and successful completion of each work task.

6. Personnel

Personnel with major responsibilities shall be listed by name, title, position, academic background, relevant experience, responsibilities with the project, and the extent to which this commitment is assured. This section should include specific time commitments of staff to other projects, both Federal and non-Federal. Consultants who have agreed to serve on the project should be similarly identified and assurances of their commitment included. The Project Director shall be committed for no less than approximately 60 percent of the cooperative agreement. Vitae for all principal personnel, including consultants, should be appended to the proposal. Each curriculum vitae should be limited to not more than two (2) pages and should emphasize areas of experience directly relevant to this work statement.

7. Organization Experience

This section shall describe the offeror’s pertinent experience and qualification in conducting work of a similar nature. Offerors shall offer evidence of not more than 5 previous related assignments, including the names and telephone numbers of client project offices who would be able to comment on the offeror’s performance of those assignments. Summaries (not to exceed one page) of related work shall be included. References to products resulting from these related activities shall also be included.

8. Resources/Facilities/Equipment

This section shall identify those resources (other than personnel), facilities, and equipment (e.g., library holdings, computer hardware, and software) available for use in conducting this project. Offeror should address accessibility for people with disabilities.

9. Current Contractual Obligations

Each offeror will be required to outline both federal and non-federal contractual obligations existing during the time period of this award for all projects involving personnel who will be assigned to this project. Such organizations/agencies must be identified by name and the percentage of work time allotted to these projects by personnel committed to the proposed project must be provided.

10. Issues and Associated Data Items

When responding to the tasks and when identifying what should receive emphasis, careful consideration should be given to the issues identified, their associated data items, and the statement of products desired in the final reports.

All information provided by NCD must be returned to NCD upon completion of the analysis and no later than 10working days after the completion of the cooperative agreement. The information may not be reproduced or released without the prior written permission of NCD.

11. Rights in Data, Copyright, and Disclosure

a. Data – The term data as used here includes written reports (progress, draft, and final), electronic format, and work of any similar nature that is required under any resulting Cooperative Agreement to perform this project. It does not include the awardee’s financial reports, or other information incidental to awardee administration. Data submitted to and accepted by the NCD under the cooperative agreement shall be the property of the NCD, and NCD shall have full and unlimited rights to use such data for any purpose in whatever manner deemed desirable and appropriate, including making it available to the public. Such use shall be without any additional payment to the awardee. Data may be published as the property of NCD without giving authorship to the awardee.

b. Copyright – The awardee relinquishes all copyrights and/or privileges developed under the cooperative agreement. The awardee shall not include in the data any copyrightable matter without the written approval of NCD unless the awardee provides NCD with the written permission of the copyright owner for the NCD to use the matter.

c. Disclosure – The awardee agrees not to divulge or release any information, reports, or recommendations developed or obtained with the performance of any cooperative agreement with NCD, and not otherwise available to the public, without the prior approval of the NCD.

d. Final approval of deliverables

All final deliverables are the product of NCD and require acceptance and approval by NCD. NCD reserves the right to make substantive edits to all deliverables.

12. Award Information

NCD will make an award to the responsible offeror(s) whose proposal conforms to the solicitation and is most advantageous to the Federal Government.

Upon notification of intent to award, the offeror will be expected to consult with NCD to:

Finalize a mutually agreeable timeline and deliverables schedule that will be used to guide the conduct of the study and monitor the work.

Develop a payment schedule chart to be used for installment payments of the award based on 3 deliverables.

Meet with select NCD staff and board members at a pre-award meeting.

13. Reporting

Throughout the project, the awardee and NCD Contracting Officer’s Representative will conduct mutually agreed upon monthly teleconference calls and/or biweekly meetings, set-up and arranged for by the awardee, to include other project staff members, NCD staff and, as appropriate, selected project advisors and NCD council members.

The awardee will provide monthly electronic progress reports to the NCD Contracting Officer’s Representative.

The awardee will present on its work before NCD at a quarterly Council meeting and must factor travel expenses into the project budget.

Business Proposal

The business proposal shall contain a detailed budget for the project and the certifications and representations required by OMB Circular A-110.

Note: For each type of entity, there is a set of Federal principles for determining allowable costs. Allowable costs shall be determined in accordance with the cost principles applicable to the entity incurring the costs. Thus, allowable costs incurred by State, local or federally-recognized Indian tribal governments is determined in accordance with the provisions of OMB Circular A–87, “Cost Principles for State and Local Governments.” The allowable costs incurred by non-profit organizations is determined in accordance with the provisions of OMB Circular A–122, “Cost Principles for Non-Profit Organizations.”

The allowable costs incurred by institutions of higher education is determined in accordance with the provisions of OMB Circular A–21, “Cost Principles for Educational Institutions. The allowable costs incurred by commercial organizations and those non-profit organizations listed in Attachment C to Circular A–122 is determined in accordance with the provisions of the Federal Acquisition Regulation (FAR) at 48 CFR part 31.

Technical Evaluation Criteria

Evaluation criteria will score proposals with a maximum of 100 points, divided as follows:

1. A clear understanding of the nature of the work (20 points)

The proposal presents a clear understanding of the tasks required and the importance, quality, and reliability of those tasks. The proposal will present the rationale and/or interpretation of the project approach.

2. Procedural Plan (30 points)

The proposal contains evidence of a fully described technical approach to comply with each of the tasks in the scope of work. The proposal is consistent with the goals, objectives, compliance requirements, and is practical in terms of producing needed information, analysis, and recommendations.

3. Management Plan and Schedule (20 points)

The degree to which the project team, including any use of consultants, is organized, managed, and motivated to accomplish effective and efficient implementation of all tasks to be completed. The proposal budget is appropriate to the administration of the project. The time frame is realistic. Plans and schedules to assure smooth cooperation with the NCD staff involved are evident. The proposal clearly identifies who will be key personnel and includes a table showing the number of person-days by tasks for each of the key personnel.

4. Personnel (15 points)

The proposal provides evidence of the specific qualifications and skills of staff and consultants to be assigned to this project, and their experience and familiarity with the topic, including relevant laws, regulations, procedures, and practices in the Federal Government. Skills in writing and conducting research should also be clearly demonstrated.

5. Organizational Experience (15 points)

The proposal describes to which the overall experience and past performance of the offeror in executing similar projects should be described. Evidence of related assignments should be detailed. Offeror shall present evidence of related assignments, including the names and telephone numbers of previous project officers who would be able to comment on the offeror’s performance of those assignments.

Project Start Date

The projected start of the cooperative agreement is October 21, 2021. The projected end date is June 30, 2022.

Compliance with Executive Order 13985.

NCD wants to ensure there is stakeholder involvement in the findings and recommendations. The inclusion of people with disabilities, including people with disabilities who are multiply marginalized (black, indigenous, people of color, LGBTQ, e.g.), must be integral to the planning, development, and execution of this project. At least one section of the report should focus on stakeholder input, but input should be integrated throughout.

Citations & Style Guide for NCD Reports

NCD requires awardees to utilize the Chicago Style Manual for reports and papers and employs the documentary note system of citation (otherwise known as notes and bibliography). An explanation of this style of citation can be found at: http://library.williams.edu/citing/styles/chicago1.php andhttp://www.chicagomanualofstyle.org/tools_citationguide.html.

Accessibility of Reports

NCD reports must be totally accessible to all people with disabilities at all iterative stages of its drafting and editing. All graphs and charts must have full-text descriptions embedded as alt-text and ensure that it is Section508 compliant. All drafts and final versions must be submitted electronically in Word and PDF format.

Proposal Review Information

Reviews of proposals submitted to NCD are solicited from peers with expertise in the substantive area of the proposed project. At least three reviewers are selected by the NCD staff overseeing the review process. A conflict check is conducted to ensure that reviewers have no conflicts that prevent a review of offeror’s proposal. Special efforts are made to recruit reviewers from non-academic institutions, minority-serving institutions, or adjacent disciplines to that principally addressed in the proposal. Reviewers score and comment on each proposal. Reviews are treated as confidential documents. The NCD staff overseeing the review, examines the scores and comments, and formulates a recommendation.

Notice of Award

NCD will notify the offeror by telephone and e-mail. This will begin negotiations for a cooperative agreement. The notification is not authorization to begin performance. Organizations or individuals whose proposals are declined will be advised as promptly as possible. A summary of the strengths and weaknesses identified by reviewers, of each declined proposal, not included identifying names or information about proposal reviewers, will be made available upon request.

About the National Council on Disability

Overview and Purpose

The National Council on Disability (NCD) is an independent federal agency comprised of a team of Presidential and Congressional appointees, an Executive Director appointed by the Chair, and a full-time professional staff. The purpose of NCD is to promote policies, programs, practices, and procedures that guarantee equal opportunity for all people with disabilities regardless of the nature or significance of the disability and to empower people with disabilities to achieve economic self-sufficiency, independent living, and inclusion and integration into all aspects of society.

Specific Duties

NCD’s statutory duties are set forth at 29 USC §781, and include:

(1) provide advice to the Director with respect to the policies and conduct of the National Institute on Disability, Independent Living, and Rehabilitation Research, including ways to improve research concerning individuals with disabilities and the methods of collecting and disseminating findings of such research;

(2) provide advice to the Commissioner with respect to the policies of and conduct of the Rehabilitation Services Administration;

(3) advise the President, the Congress, the Commissioner, the appropriate Assistant Secretary of the Department of Education, and the Director of the National Institute on Disability, Independent Living, and Rehabilitation Research on the development of the programs to be carried out under this chapter;

(4) provide advice regarding priorities for the activities of the Interagency Disability Coordinating Council and review the recommendations of such Council for legislative and administrative changes to ensure that such recommendations are consistent with the purposes of the Council to promote the full integration, independence, and productivity of individuals with disabilities;

(5) review and evaluate on a continuing basis—

(A) policies, programs, practices, and procedures concerning individuals with disabilities conducted or assisted by Federal departments and agencies, including programs established or assisted under this chapter or under the Developmental Disabilities Assistance and Bill of Rights Act of 2000 [42 U.S.C. 15001 et seq.]; and

(B) all statutes and regulations pertaining to Federal programs which assist such individuals with disabilities; in order to assess the effectiveness of such policies, programs, practices, procedures, statutes, and regulations in meeting the needs of individuals with disabilities;

(6) assess the extent to which such policies, programs, practices, and procedures facilitate or impede the promotion of the policies set forth in subparagraphs (A) and (B) of section 780(a)(2) of this title;

(7) gather information about the implementation, effectiveness, and impact of the Americans with Disabilities Act of 1990 (42 U.S.C. 12101 et seq.);

(8) make recommendations to the President, the Congress, the Secretary, the Director of the National Institute on Disability and Rehabilitation Research, and other officials of Federal agencies or other Federal entities, respecting ways to better promote the policies set forth in section 780(a)(2) of this title;

(9) provide to the Congress on a continuing basis advice, recommendations, legislative proposals, and any additional information that the National Council or the Congress deems appropriate; and

(10) review and evaluate on a continuing basis new and emerging disability policy issues affecting individuals with disabilities at the Federal, State, and local levels, and in the private sector, including the need for and coordination of adult services Access to personal assistance services, school reform efforts and the impact of such efforts on individuals with disabilities, access to health care, and policies that operate as disincentives for the individuals to seek and retain employment; and

Preparing and submitting to the President and Congress an annual report titled National Disability Policy: A Progress Report.

International

In 1995, NCD was designated by the Department of State to be the U.S. government’s official contact point for disability issues. Specifically, NCD interacts with the special rapporteur of the United Nations Commission for Social Development on disability matters.

Consumers Served and Current Activities

Although many government agencies deal with issues and programs affecting people with disabilities, NCD is the only federal agency charged with addressing, analyzing, and making recommendations on issues of public policy that affect people with disabilities regardless of age, disability type, perceived employment potential, economic need, specific functional ability, veteran status, or other individual circumstance. NCD recognizes its unique opportunity to facilitate independent living, community integration, and employment opportunities for people with disabilities by ensuring an informed and coordinated approach to addressing the concerns of people with disabilities and eliminating barriers to their active participation in community and family life.

NCD plays a major role in developing disability policy in America. NCD originally proposed what eventually became the ADA. To see NCD’s present and past work on issues that are key to the lives of people with disabilities, visit www.ncd.gov.

Statutory History

NCD was established in 1978 as an advisory board within the Department of Health Education and Welfare (P.L.95-602). The Rehabilitation Act Amendments of 1984 (P.L. 98-221) established NCD as an independent agency.

For General Information:202-272-2004 Voice202-272-2074 TTY202-272-2022 Fax

 

[1] Michael J Lynch and Paul B Stretesky. Lynch, Michael J., and Paul B. Stretesky. “Native Americans and Social and Environmental Justice: Implications for Criminology.” Social Justice 38, no. 3 (125) (2012): 104–24. http://www.jstor.org/stable/41940950

[2] Ximena Saskia Warnaars, “The Unknown Ally in the Fight for Environmental Justice,” Ford Foundation, September 24, 2020, https://www.fordfoundation.org/just-matters/just-matters/posts/the-unkno...

[3] Cara Schulte, “People with Disabilities Needed Fight against Climate Change,” Human Rights Watch, May 28, 2020, https://www.hrw.org/news/2020/05/28/people-disabilities-needed-fight-aga...

[4] ibid.

[5] “Survey Results Reveal Alarming Danger Faced by People with Disabilities during Winter Storm,” Disability Rights Texas, April 6, 2021, https://www.disabilityrightstx.org/en/press_release/winter-storm-survey-...

[6] “Climate Change and the Health of People with Disabilities,” United States Environmental Protection Agency, accessed September 21, 2021, https://www.cmu.edu/steinbrenner/EPA%20Factsheets/disabilities-health-cl...

[7] Krystal Vasquez, “Why Environmental Justice Research Needs to Include Disability,” GreenBiz, September 16, 2021, https://www.greenbiz.com/article/why-environmental-justice-research-need...

[8] Krystal Vasquez, “Why Environmental Justice Research Needs to Include Disability,” GreenBiz, September 16, 2021, https://www.greenbiz.com/article/why-environmental-justice-research-need...

[9] ibid.

[10] ibid.

[11] Michael J Lynch and Paul B Stretesky. Lynch, Michael J., and Paul B. Stretesky. “Native Americans and Social and Environmental Justice: Implications for Criminology.” Social Justice 38, no. 3 (125) (2012): 104–24. http://www.jstor.org/stable/41940950

[12] “Tribal Nations, Key Points”U.S. climate resilience toolkit, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, accessed September 21, 2021, https://toolkit.climate.gov/topics/tribal-nations